Proximal junctional kyphosis in primary adult deformity surgery: Evaluation of 20 degrees as a critical angle

Keith H. Bridwell, Lawrence G. Lenke, Samuel K. Cho, Joshua M. Pahys, Lukas P. Zebala, Ian G. Dorward, Woojin Cho, Christine Baldus, Brian W. Hill, Matthew M. Kang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

67 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Multiple studies have reported on the prevalence of proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) following spinal deformity surgery; however, none have demonstrated its significance with respect to functional outcome scores or revision surgery. Objective: To evaluate if 20 is a possible critical PJK angle in primary adult scoliosis surgery patients as a threshold for worse patient-reported outcomes. Methods: Clinical and radiographic data of 90 consecutive primary surgical patients at a single institution (2002-2007) with adult idiopathic/degenerative scoliosis and 2-year minimum follow-up were analyzed. Assessment included radiographic measurements, but most notably sagittal Cobb angle of the proximal junctional angle at preoperation, between 1 and 2 months, 2 years, and ultimate follow-up. Results: Prevalence of PJK ≥20° at 3.5 years was 27.8% (n = 25). Those with PJK ≥20° at ultimate follow-up were older (mean 56 vs 46 years), had lower number of levels fused (median 8 vs 11), and were proximally fused to the lower thoracic spine more often than upper thoracic spine (all P < .001). PJK ≥20° was associated with significantly higher body mass index and fusion to the sacrum with iliac screws (P < .016, P < .029, respectively). Scoliosis Research Society outcome score changes were lower for PJK patients, but not significantly different from those in the non-PJK group. Conclusion: PJK ≥20° in primary adult idiopathic/degenerative scoliosis does not lead to revision surgery for PJK, but is univariately associated with older age, shorter constructs starting in the lower thoracic spine, obesity, and fusion to the sacrum. The negative results, supported by Scoliosis Research Society outcome data, provide important guidance on the postoperative management of such PJK patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)899-906
Number of pages8
JournalNeurosurgery
Volume72
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2013
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Kyphosis
Scoliosis
Sacrum
Spine
Thorax
Reoperation
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Body Mass Index
Obesity

Keywords

  • Adult
  • Outcome
  • Primary
  • Proximal junctional kyphosis
  • Spinal deformity
  • Surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Surgery

Cite this

Bridwell, K. H., Lenke, L. G., Cho, S. K., Pahys, J. M., Zebala, L. P., Dorward, I. G., ... Kang, M. M. (2013). Proximal junctional kyphosis in primary adult deformity surgery: Evaluation of 20 degrees as a critical angle. Neurosurgery, 72(6), 899-906. https://doi.org/10.1227/NEU.0b013e31828bacd8

Proximal junctional kyphosis in primary adult deformity surgery : Evaluation of 20 degrees as a critical angle. / Bridwell, Keith H.; Lenke, Lawrence G.; Cho, Samuel K.; Pahys, Joshua M.; Zebala, Lukas P.; Dorward, Ian G.; Cho, Woojin; Baldus, Christine; Hill, Brian W.; Kang, Matthew M.

In: Neurosurgery, Vol. 72, No. 6, 06.2013, p. 899-906.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bridwell, KH, Lenke, LG, Cho, SK, Pahys, JM, Zebala, LP, Dorward, IG, Cho, W, Baldus, C, Hill, BW & Kang, MM 2013, 'Proximal junctional kyphosis in primary adult deformity surgery: Evaluation of 20 degrees as a critical angle', Neurosurgery, vol. 72, no. 6, pp. 899-906. https://doi.org/10.1227/NEU.0b013e31828bacd8
Bridwell, Keith H. ; Lenke, Lawrence G. ; Cho, Samuel K. ; Pahys, Joshua M. ; Zebala, Lukas P. ; Dorward, Ian G. ; Cho, Woojin ; Baldus, Christine ; Hill, Brian W. ; Kang, Matthew M. / Proximal junctional kyphosis in primary adult deformity surgery : Evaluation of 20 degrees as a critical angle. In: Neurosurgery. 2013 ; Vol. 72, No. 6. pp. 899-906.
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abstract = "Background: Multiple studies have reported on the prevalence of proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) following spinal deformity surgery; however, none have demonstrated its significance with respect to functional outcome scores or revision surgery. Objective: To evaluate if 20 is a possible critical PJK angle in primary adult scoliosis surgery patients as a threshold for worse patient-reported outcomes. Methods: Clinical and radiographic data of 90 consecutive primary surgical patients at a single institution (2002-2007) with adult idiopathic/degenerative scoliosis and 2-year minimum follow-up were analyzed. Assessment included radiographic measurements, but most notably sagittal Cobb angle of the proximal junctional angle at preoperation, between 1 and 2 months, 2 years, and ultimate follow-up. Results: Prevalence of PJK ≥20° at 3.5 years was 27.8{\%} (n = 25). Those with PJK ≥20° at ultimate follow-up were older (mean 56 vs 46 years), had lower number of levels fused (median 8 vs 11), and were proximally fused to the lower thoracic spine more often than upper thoracic spine (all P < .001). PJK ≥20° was associated with significantly higher body mass index and fusion to the sacrum with iliac screws (P < .016, P < .029, respectively). Scoliosis Research Society outcome score changes were lower for PJK patients, but not significantly different from those in the non-PJK group. Conclusion: PJK ≥20° in primary adult idiopathic/degenerative scoliosis does not lead to revision surgery for PJK, but is univariately associated with older age, shorter constructs starting in the lower thoracic spine, obesity, and fusion to the sacrum. The negative results, supported by Scoliosis Research Society outcome data, provide important guidance on the postoperative management of such PJK patients.",
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T2 - Evaluation of 20 degrees as a critical angle

AU - Bridwell, Keith H.

AU - Lenke, Lawrence G.

AU - Cho, Samuel K.

AU - Pahys, Joshua M.

AU - Zebala, Lukas P.

AU - Dorward, Ian G.

AU - Cho, Woojin

AU - Baldus, Christine

AU - Hill, Brian W.

AU - Kang, Matthew M.

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N2 - Background: Multiple studies have reported on the prevalence of proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) following spinal deformity surgery; however, none have demonstrated its significance with respect to functional outcome scores or revision surgery. Objective: To evaluate if 20 is a possible critical PJK angle in primary adult scoliosis surgery patients as a threshold for worse patient-reported outcomes. Methods: Clinical and radiographic data of 90 consecutive primary surgical patients at a single institution (2002-2007) with adult idiopathic/degenerative scoliosis and 2-year minimum follow-up were analyzed. Assessment included radiographic measurements, but most notably sagittal Cobb angle of the proximal junctional angle at preoperation, between 1 and 2 months, 2 years, and ultimate follow-up. Results: Prevalence of PJK ≥20° at 3.5 years was 27.8% (n = 25). Those with PJK ≥20° at ultimate follow-up were older (mean 56 vs 46 years), had lower number of levels fused (median 8 vs 11), and were proximally fused to the lower thoracic spine more often than upper thoracic spine (all P < .001). PJK ≥20° was associated with significantly higher body mass index and fusion to the sacrum with iliac screws (P < .016, P < .029, respectively). Scoliosis Research Society outcome score changes were lower for PJK patients, but not significantly different from those in the non-PJK group. Conclusion: PJK ≥20° in primary adult idiopathic/degenerative scoliosis does not lead to revision surgery for PJK, but is univariately associated with older age, shorter constructs starting in the lower thoracic spine, obesity, and fusion to the sacrum. The negative results, supported by Scoliosis Research Society outcome data, provide important guidance on the postoperative management of such PJK patients.

AB - Background: Multiple studies have reported on the prevalence of proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) following spinal deformity surgery; however, none have demonstrated its significance with respect to functional outcome scores or revision surgery. Objective: To evaluate if 20 is a possible critical PJK angle in primary adult scoliosis surgery patients as a threshold for worse patient-reported outcomes. Methods: Clinical and radiographic data of 90 consecutive primary surgical patients at a single institution (2002-2007) with adult idiopathic/degenerative scoliosis and 2-year minimum follow-up were analyzed. Assessment included radiographic measurements, but most notably sagittal Cobb angle of the proximal junctional angle at preoperation, between 1 and 2 months, 2 years, and ultimate follow-up. Results: Prevalence of PJK ≥20° at 3.5 years was 27.8% (n = 25). Those with PJK ≥20° at ultimate follow-up were older (mean 56 vs 46 years), had lower number of levels fused (median 8 vs 11), and were proximally fused to the lower thoracic spine more often than upper thoracic spine (all P < .001). PJK ≥20° was associated with significantly higher body mass index and fusion to the sacrum with iliac screws (P < .016, P < .029, respectively). Scoliosis Research Society outcome score changes were lower for PJK patients, but not significantly different from those in the non-PJK group. Conclusion: PJK ≥20° in primary adult idiopathic/degenerative scoliosis does not lead to revision surgery for PJK, but is univariately associated with older age, shorter constructs starting in the lower thoracic spine, obesity, and fusion to the sacrum. The negative results, supported by Scoliosis Research Society outcome data, provide important guidance on the postoperative management of such PJK patients.

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KW - Spinal deformity

KW - Surgery

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