Protective Effects of Activated Myofibroblasts in the Pressure-Overloaded Myocardium Are Mediated Through Smad-Dependent Activation of a Matrix-Preserving Program

Ilaria Russo, Michele Cavalera, Shuaibo Huang, Ya Su, Anis Hanna, Bijun Chen, Arti V. Shinde, Simon J. Conway, Jonathan Graff, Nikolaos G. Frangogiannis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

RATIONALE: The heart contains abundant interstitial and perivascular fibroblasts. Traditional views suggest that, under conditions of mechanical stress, cytokines, growth factors, and neurohumoral mediators stimulate fibroblast activation, inducing ECM (extracellular matrix) protein synthesis and promoting fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction. Members of the TGF (transforming growth factor)-β family are upregulated and activated in the remodeling myocardium and modulate phenotype and function of all myocardial cell types through activation of intracellular effector molecules, the Smads (small mothers against decapentaplegic), and through Smad-independent pathways. OBJECTIVES: To examine the role of fibroblast-specific TGF-β/Smad3 signaling in the remodeling pressure-overloaded myocardium. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the effects of cell-specific Smad3 loss in activated periostin-expressing myofibroblasts using a mouse model of cardiac pressure overload, induced through transverse aortic constriction. Surprisingly, FS3KO (myofibroblast-specific Smad3 knockout) mice exhibited accelerated systolic dysfunction after pressure overload, evidenced by an early 40% reduction in ejection fraction after 7 days of transverse aortic constriction. Accelerated systolic dysfunction in pressure-overloaded FS3KO mice was associated with accentuated matrix degradation and generation of collagen-derived matrikines, accompanied by cardiomyocyte myofibrillar loss and apoptosis, and by enhanced macrophage-driven inflammation. In vitro, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3 stimulated a Smad3-dependent matrix-preserving phenotype in cardiac fibroblasts, suppressing MMP (matrix metalloproteinase)-3 and MMP-8 synthesis and inducing TIMP (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases)-1. In vivo, administration of an MMP-8 inhibitor attenuated early systolic dysfunction in pressure-overloaded FS3KO mice, suggesting that the protective effects of activated cardiac myofibroblasts in the pressure-overloaded myocardium are, at least in part, because of suppression of MMPs and activation of a matrix-preserving program. MMP-8 stimulation induces a proinflammatory phenotype in isolated macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: In the pressure-overloaded myocardium, TGF-β/Smad3-activated cardiac fibroblasts play an important protective role, preserving the ECM network, suppressing macrophage-driven inflammation, and attenuating cardiomyocyte injury. The protective actions of the myofibroblasts are mediated, at least in part, through Smad-dependent suppression of matrix-degrading proteases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1214-1227
Number of pages14
JournalCirculation research
Volume124
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 12 2019

Fingerprint

Myofibroblasts
Transforming Growth Factors
Myocardium
Pressure
Matrix Metalloproteinase 8
Fibroblasts
Macrophages
Phenotype
Cardiac Myocytes
Constriction
Inflammation
Matrix Metalloproteinase 3
Mechanical Stress
Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1
Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors
Extracellular Matrix Proteins
Matrix Metalloproteinases
Knockout Mice
Extracellular Matrix
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins

Keywords

  • extracellular matrix
  • fibroblasts
  • inflammation
  • macrophages
  • matrix metalloproteinases

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Protective Effects of Activated Myofibroblasts in the Pressure-Overloaded Myocardium Are Mediated Through Smad-Dependent Activation of a Matrix-Preserving Program. / Russo, Ilaria; Cavalera, Michele; Huang, Shuaibo; Su, Ya; Hanna, Anis; Chen, Bijun; Shinde, Arti V.; Conway, Simon J.; Graff, Jonathan; Frangogiannis, Nikolaos G.

In: Circulation research, Vol. 124, No. 8, 12.04.2019, p. 1214-1227.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Russo, Ilaria ; Cavalera, Michele ; Huang, Shuaibo ; Su, Ya ; Hanna, Anis ; Chen, Bijun ; Shinde, Arti V. ; Conway, Simon J. ; Graff, Jonathan ; Frangogiannis, Nikolaos G. / Protective Effects of Activated Myofibroblasts in the Pressure-Overloaded Myocardium Are Mediated Through Smad-Dependent Activation of a Matrix-Preserving Program. In: Circulation research. 2019 ; Vol. 124, No. 8. pp. 1214-1227.
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abstract = "RATIONALE: The heart contains abundant interstitial and perivascular fibroblasts. Traditional views suggest that, under conditions of mechanical stress, cytokines, growth factors, and neurohumoral mediators stimulate fibroblast activation, inducing ECM (extracellular matrix) protein synthesis and promoting fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction. Members of the TGF (transforming growth factor)-β family are upregulated and activated in the remodeling myocardium and modulate phenotype and function of all myocardial cell types through activation of intracellular effector molecules, the Smads (small mothers against decapentaplegic), and through Smad-independent pathways. OBJECTIVES: To examine the role of fibroblast-specific TGF-β/Smad3 signaling in the remodeling pressure-overloaded myocardium. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the effects of cell-specific Smad3 loss in activated periostin-expressing myofibroblasts using a mouse model of cardiac pressure overload, induced through transverse aortic constriction. Surprisingly, FS3KO (myofibroblast-specific Smad3 knockout) mice exhibited accelerated systolic dysfunction after pressure overload, evidenced by an early 40{\%} reduction in ejection fraction after 7 days of transverse aortic constriction. Accelerated systolic dysfunction in pressure-overloaded FS3KO mice was associated with accentuated matrix degradation and generation of collagen-derived matrikines, accompanied by cardiomyocyte myofibrillar loss and apoptosis, and by enhanced macrophage-driven inflammation. In vitro, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3 stimulated a Smad3-dependent matrix-preserving phenotype in cardiac fibroblasts, suppressing MMP (matrix metalloproteinase)-3 and MMP-8 synthesis and inducing TIMP (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases)-1. In vivo, administration of an MMP-8 inhibitor attenuated early systolic dysfunction in pressure-overloaded FS3KO mice, suggesting that the protective effects of activated cardiac myofibroblasts in the pressure-overloaded myocardium are, at least in part, because of suppression of MMPs and activation of a matrix-preserving program. MMP-8 stimulation induces a proinflammatory phenotype in isolated macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: In the pressure-overloaded myocardium, TGF-β/Smad3-activated cardiac fibroblasts play an important protective role, preserving the ECM network, suppressing macrophage-driven inflammation, and attenuating cardiomyocyte injury. The protective actions of the myofibroblasts are mediated, at least in part, through Smad-dependent suppression of matrix-degrading proteases.",
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AU - Russo, Ilaria

AU - Cavalera, Michele

AU - Huang, Shuaibo

AU - Su, Ya

AU - Hanna, Anis

AU - Chen, Bijun

AU - Shinde, Arti V.

AU - Conway, Simon J.

AU - Graff, Jonathan

AU - Frangogiannis, Nikolaos G.

PY - 2019/4/12

Y1 - 2019/4/12

N2 - RATIONALE: The heart contains abundant interstitial and perivascular fibroblasts. Traditional views suggest that, under conditions of mechanical stress, cytokines, growth factors, and neurohumoral mediators stimulate fibroblast activation, inducing ECM (extracellular matrix) protein synthesis and promoting fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction. Members of the TGF (transforming growth factor)-β family are upregulated and activated in the remodeling myocardium and modulate phenotype and function of all myocardial cell types through activation of intracellular effector molecules, the Smads (small mothers against decapentaplegic), and through Smad-independent pathways. OBJECTIVES: To examine the role of fibroblast-specific TGF-β/Smad3 signaling in the remodeling pressure-overloaded myocardium. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the effects of cell-specific Smad3 loss in activated periostin-expressing myofibroblasts using a mouse model of cardiac pressure overload, induced through transverse aortic constriction. Surprisingly, FS3KO (myofibroblast-specific Smad3 knockout) mice exhibited accelerated systolic dysfunction after pressure overload, evidenced by an early 40% reduction in ejection fraction after 7 days of transverse aortic constriction. Accelerated systolic dysfunction in pressure-overloaded FS3KO mice was associated with accentuated matrix degradation and generation of collagen-derived matrikines, accompanied by cardiomyocyte myofibrillar loss and apoptosis, and by enhanced macrophage-driven inflammation. In vitro, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3 stimulated a Smad3-dependent matrix-preserving phenotype in cardiac fibroblasts, suppressing MMP (matrix metalloproteinase)-3 and MMP-8 synthesis and inducing TIMP (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases)-1. In vivo, administration of an MMP-8 inhibitor attenuated early systolic dysfunction in pressure-overloaded FS3KO mice, suggesting that the protective effects of activated cardiac myofibroblasts in the pressure-overloaded myocardium are, at least in part, because of suppression of MMPs and activation of a matrix-preserving program. MMP-8 stimulation induces a proinflammatory phenotype in isolated macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: In the pressure-overloaded myocardium, TGF-β/Smad3-activated cardiac fibroblasts play an important protective role, preserving the ECM network, suppressing macrophage-driven inflammation, and attenuating cardiomyocyte injury. The protective actions of the myofibroblasts are mediated, at least in part, through Smad-dependent suppression of matrix-degrading proteases.

AB - RATIONALE: The heart contains abundant interstitial and perivascular fibroblasts. Traditional views suggest that, under conditions of mechanical stress, cytokines, growth factors, and neurohumoral mediators stimulate fibroblast activation, inducing ECM (extracellular matrix) protein synthesis and promoting fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction. Members of the TGF (transforming growth factor)-β family are upregulated and activated in the remodeling myocardium and modulate phenotype and function of all myocardial cell types through activation of intracellular effector molecules, the Smads (small mothers against decapentaplegic), and through Smad-independent pathways. OBJECTIVES: To examine the role of fibroblast-specific TGF-β/Smad3 signaling in the remodeling pressure-overloaded myocardium. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the effects of cell-specific Smad3 loss in activated periostin-expressing myofibroblasts using a mouse model of cardiac pressure overload, induced through transverse aortic constriction. Surprisingly, FS3KO (myofibroblast-specific Smad3 knockout) mice exhibited accelerated systolic dysfunction after pressure overload, evidenced by an early 40% reduction in ejection fraction after 7 days of transverse aortic constriction. Accelerated systolic dysfunction in pressure-overloaded FS3KO mice was associated with accentuated matrix degradation and generation of collagen-derived matrikines, accompanied by cardiomyocyte myofibrillar loss and apoptosis, and by enhanced macrophage-driven inflammation. In vitro, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3 stimulated a Smad3-dependent matrix-preserving phenotype in cardiac fibroblasts, suppressing MMP (matrix metalloproteinase)-3 and MMP-8 synthesis and inducing TIMP (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases)-1. In vivo, administration of an MMP-8 inhibitor attenuated early systolic dysfunction in pressure-overloaded FS3KO mice, suggesting that the protective effects of activated cardiac myofibroblasts in the pressure-overloaded myocardium are, at least in part, because of suppression of MMPs and activation of a matrix-preserving program. MMP-8 stimulation induces a proinflammatory phenotype in isolated macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: In the pressure-overloaded myocardium, TGF-β/Smad3-activated cardiac fibroblasts play an important protective role, preserving the ECM network, suppressing macrophage-driven inflammation, and attenuating cardiomyocyte injury. The protective actions of the myofibroblasts are mediated, at least in part, through Smad-dependent suppression of matrix-degrading proteases.

KW - extracellular matrix

KW - fibroblasts

KW - inflammation

KW - macrophages

KW - matrix metalloproteinases

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