Elevated proteasome activity extends lifespan in model organisms such as yeast, worms and flies. This pro-longevity effect might be mediated by improved protein homeostasis, as this protease is an integral module of the protein homeostasis network. Proteasomes also regulate cellular processes through temporal and spatial degradation of signaling pathway components. Here we demonstrate that the regulatory function of the proteasome plays an essential role in aging cells and that the beneficial impact of elevated proteasome capacity on lifespan partially originates from deregulation of the AMPK signaling pathway. Proteasome-mediated lifespan extension activity was carbon-source dependent and cells with enhancement proteasome function exhibited increased respiratory activity and oxidative stress response. These findings suggested that the pro-aging impact of proteasome upregulation might be related to changes in the metabolic state through a premature induction of respiration. Deletion of yeast AMPK, SNF1, or its activator SNF4 abrogated proteasome-mediated lifespan extension, supporting this hypothesis as the AMPK pathway regulates metabolism. We found that the premature induction of respiration in cells with increased proteasome activity originates from enhanced turnover of Mig1, an AMPK/Snf1 regulated transcriptional repressor that prevents the induction of genes required for respiration. Increasing proteasome activity also resulted in partial relocation of Mig1 from the nucleus to the mitochondria. Collectively, the results argue for a model in which elevated proteasome activity leads to the uncoupling of Snf1-mediated Mig1 regulation, resulting in a premature activation of respiration and thus the induction of a mitohormetic response, beneficial to lifespan. In addition, we observed incorrect Mig1 localization in two other long-lived yeast aging models: cells that overexpress SIR2 or deleted for the Mig1-regulator HXK2. Finally, compromised proteasome function blocks lifespan extension in both strains. Thus, our findings suggest that proteasomes, Sir2, Snf1 and Hxk2 form an interconnected aging network that controls metabolism through coordinated regulation of Mig1.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Molecular Biology
- Cancer Research