The galactose binding protein implicated in transport and in chemotaxis has been purified to homogeneity from the shock fluids of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. Both proteins are monomers of molecular weight 33 000 and exhibit cross-reactivity with antibody. The Salmonella galactose receptor showed binding of 1 mol of [14C]galactose or 1 mol of [14C]glucose at saturation. The dissociation constants were 0.38 and 0.17 μM, respectively. In light of the previously published report that the E. coli protein contains two binding sites with two different affinities, the binding characteristics of this protein were reexamined. Using highly purified radiolabeled substrate and homogeneous protein, a single binding site and single binding affinity were seen for galactose (KD = 0.48 μM) or for glucose (KD = 0.21 μM). The competition between glucose and galactose for the same site is intriguing in view of the competition between ribose and galactose at the receptor level.
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