Production of melanin pigments in saprophytic fungi in vitro and during infection

Siriporn Chongkae, Joshua D. Nosanchuk, Kritsada Pruksaphon, Angkana Laliam, Soraya Pornsuwan, Sirida Youngchim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Melanins are one of the great natural pigments produced by a wide variety of fungal species that promote fitness and cell survival in diverse hostile environments, including during mammalian infection. In this study, we sought to demonstrate the production of melanin in the conidia and hyphae of saprophytic fungi, including dematiaceous and hyaline fungi. We showed that a melanin-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb) avidly labeled the cell walls of hyphae and conidia, consistent with the presence of melanin in these structures, in 14 diverse fungal species. The conidia of saprophytic fungi were treated with proteolytic enzymes, denaturant, and concentrated hot acid to yield dark particles, which were shown to be stable free radicals, consistent with their identification as melanins. Samples obtained from patients with fungal keratitis due to Fusarium falciforme, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Curvularia lunata, Exserohilum rostratum, or Fonsecaea pedrosoi were found to be intensely labeled by the melanin-specific MAb at the fungal hyphal cell walls. These results support the hypothesis that melanin is a common component that promotes survival under harsh conditions and facilitates fungal virulence. Increased understanding of the processes of melanization and the development of methods to interfere with pigment formation may lead to novel approaches to combat these complex pathogens that are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1092-1104
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Basic Microbiology
Volume59
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2019

Fingerprint

Melanins
Fungi
Fungal Spores
Infection
Hyphae
Cell Wall
Monoclonal Antibodies
Aspergillus flavus
Hyalin
Aspergillus fumigatus
Keratitis
Fusarium
In Vitro Techniques
Free Radicals
Virulence
Cell Survival
Peptide Hydrolases
Morbidity
Acids
Survival

Keywords

  • antimelanin monoclonal antibody
  • electron spin resonance
  • melanin
  • saprophytic fungi

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

Cite this

Production of melanin pigments in saprophytic fungi in vitro and during infection. / Chongkae, Siriporn; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Pruksaphon, Kritsada; Laliam, Angkana; Pornsuwan, Soraya; Youngchim, Sirida.

In: Journal of Basic Microbiology, Vol. 59, No. 11, 01.11.2019, p. 1092-1104.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chongkae, S, Nosanchuk, JD, Pruksaphon, K, Laliam, A, Pornsuwan, S & Youngchim, S 2019, 'Production of melanin pigments in saprophytic fungi in vitro and during infection', Journal of Basic Microbiology, vol. 59, no. 11, pp. 1092-1104. https://doi.org/10.1002/jobm.201900295
Chongkae, Siriporn ; Nosanchuk, Joshua D. ; Pruksaphon, Kritsada ; Laliam, Angkana ; Pornsuwan, Soraya ; Youngchim, Sirida. / Production of melanin pigments in saprophytic fungi in vitro and during infection. In: Journal of Basic Microbiology. 2019 ; Vol. 59, No. 11. pp. 1092-1104.
@article{567f33e5ae944aaf83a6c814f4db29c0,
title = "Production of melanin pigments in saprophytic fungi in vitro and during infection",
abstract = "Melanins are one of the great natural pigments produced by a wide variety of fungal species that promote fitness and cell survival in diverse hostile environments, including during mammalian infection. In this study, we sought to demonstrate the production of melanin in the conidia and hyphae of saprophytic fungi, including dematiaceous and hyaline fungi. We showed that a melanin-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb) avidly labeled the cell walls of hyphae and conidia, consistent with the presence of melanin in these structures, in 14 diverse fungal species. The conidia of saprophytic fungi were treated with proteolytic enzymes, denaturant, and concentrated hot acid to yield dark particles, which were shown to be stable free radicals, consistent with their identification as melanins. Samples obtained from patients with fungal keratitis due to Fusarium falciforme, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Curvularia lunata, Exserohilum rostratum, or Fonsecaea pedrosoi were found to be intensely labeled by the melanin-specific MAb at the fungal hyphal cell walls. These results support the hypothesis that melanin is a common component that promotes survival under harsh conditions and facilitates fungal virulence. Increased understanding of the processes of melanization and the development of methods to interfere with pigment formation may lead to novel approaches to combat these complex pathogens that are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality.",
keywords = "antimelanin monoclonal antibody, electron spin resonance, melanin, saprophytic fungi",
author = "Siriporn Chongkae and Nosanchuk, {Joshua D.} and Kritsada Pruksaphon and Angkana Laliam and Soraya Pornsuwan and Sirida Youngchim",
year = "2019",
month = "11",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1002/jobm.201900295",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "59",
pages = "1092--1104",
journal = "Journal of Basic Microbiology",
issn = "0233-111X",
publisher = "Wiley-VCH Verlag",
number = "11",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Production of melanin pigments in saprophytic fungi in vitro and during infection

AU - Chongkae, Siriporn

AU - Nosanchuk, Joshua D.

AU - Pruksaphon, Kritsada

AU - Laliam, Angkana

AU - Pornsuwan, Soraya

AU - Youngchim, Sirida

PY - 2019/11/1

Y1 - 2019/11/1

N2 - Melanins are one of the great natural pigments produced by a wide variety of fungal species that promote fitness and cell survival in diverse hostile environments, including during mammalian infection. In this study, we sought to demonstrate the production of melanin in the conidia and hyphae of saprophytic fungi, including dematiaceous and hyaline fungi. We showed that a melanin-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb) avidly labeled the cell walls of hyphae and conidia, consistent with the presence of melanin in these structures, in 14 diverse fungal species. The conidia of saprophytic fungi were treated with proteolytic enzymes, denaturant, and concentrated hot acid to yield dark particles, which were shown to be stable free radicals, consistent with their identification as melanins. Samples obtained from patients with fungal keratitis due to Fusarium falciforme, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Curvularia lunata, Exserohilum rostratum, or Fonsecaea pedrosoi were found to be intensely labeled by the melanin-specific MAb at the fungal hyphal cell walls. These results support the hypothesis that melanin is a common component that promotes survival under harsh conditions and facilitates fungal virulence. Increased understanding of the processes of melanization and the development of methods to interfere with pigment formation may lead to novel approaches to combat these complex pathogens that are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality.

AB - Melanins are one of the great natural pigments produced by a wide variety of fungal species that promote fitness and cell survival in diverse hostile environments, including during mammalian infection. In this study, we sought to demonstrate the production of melanin in the conidia and hyphae of saprophytic fungi, including dematiaceous and hyaline fungi. We showed that a melanin-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb) avidly labeled the cell walls of hyphae and conidia, consistent with the presence of melanin in these structures, in 14 diverse fungal species. The conidia of saprophytic fungi were treated with proteolytic enzymes, denaturant, and concentrated hot acid to yield dark particles, which were shown to be stable free radicals, consistent with their identification as melanins. Samples obtained from patients with fungal keratitis due to Fusarium falciforme, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Curvularia lunata, Exserohilum rostratum, or Fonsecaea pedrosoi were found to be intensely labeled by the melanin-specific MAb at the fungal hyphal cell walls. These results support the hypothesis that melanin is a common component that promotes survival under harsh conditions and facilitates fungal virulence. Increased understanding of the processes of melanization and the development of methods to interfere with pigment formation may lead to novel approaches to combat these complex pathogens that are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality.

KW - antimelanin monoclonal antibody

KW - electron spin resonance

KW - melanin

KW - saprophytic fungi

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85074263287&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85074263287&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/jobm.201900295

DO - 10.1002/jobm.201900295

M3 - Article

C2 - 31613011

AN - SCOPUS:85074263287

VL - 59

SP - 1092

EP - 1104

JO - Journal of Basic Microbiology

JF - Journal of Basic Microbiology

SN - 0233-111X

IS - 11

ER -