Six patients in whom errors of diagnosis and therapy occurred because of reliance on colonoscopic tumor localization are presented. Three of the patients required a second laparotomy for surgical resection of a tumor that was missed at the first exploration. While endoscopy is regarded as the diagnostic gold standard, there are problems in its use for colonoscopic localization. Reliance on distance measurements may be misleading. Anatomical variants can be confusing. For this reason, a preoperative barium enema for precise delineation and localization of tumors is recommended. When a barium enema is not feasible, such as when a malignant polyp has been removed endoscopically, preoperative endoscopic localization with injection of India ink or intraoperative colonoscopy must be performed.
- Barium enema
- Colon carcinoma, localization
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging