Derangements of trace elements often occur in patients with renal failure and play a crucial role in chronic kidney disease. The natural history of trace element deposition with worsening chronic kidney disease has been poorly described. Some essential trace elements may get wasted (e.g., selenium, zinc, and manganese) while other trace elements accumulate (e.g., cobalt, lead, molybdenum, and vanadium). Data are most readily available relating to hemodialysis patients. Continuous renal replacement therapies (for the treatment of acute kidney injury) and chronic kidney disease patients without need for renal replacement therapy remain largely unstudied. We have synthesized all available data on mode of absorption and elimination, volume of distribution, plasma protein binding, and proteinuria to summarize the existing literature, identify future areas of research and to allow some prediction of the fate of individual trace elements in clinical scenarios where no direct observational data are available. More prospective studies evaluating the impact of abnormal trace elements and the possible therapeutic value of intervention are required to improve how robust the current international guideline recommendations (KDOQI) are with respect to trace element monitoring.
- Chronic kidney disease
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