Prevalence and determinants of isolated systolic hypertension among young adults: The 1999-2004 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Regina C. Grebla, Carlos J. Rodriguez, Luisa N. Borrell, Thomas G. Pickering

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

59 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Little is known about isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) in younger adults. We examined the prevalence and determinants of ISH in this age group using the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) and made comparisons using data from NHANES III (1988-1994). METHODS: A total of 5685 adults aged 18-39 years and not on antihypertensive medications were analyzed. Prevalence estimates of ISH and potential risk factors were estimated by age and sex. For comparison of prevalence estimates with published reports of NHANES III data, age cutoffs (18-24, 25-34, and 35-44 year) by sex were also employed. A multivariate logistic regression model tested independent determinants of ISH. RESULTS: ISH in young adults had a higher prevalence than systolic/diastolic hypertension (1.57 ± 0.23% vs. 0.93 ± 0.18%). ISH prevalence increased within the last decade particularly for men for each respective age category [men (0.8 vs. 2.2%, 1.3 vs. 2.4%, 1.3 vs. 2.4%), women (0.0 vs. 0.3%, 0.1 vs. 0.7%, 1.7 vs. 1.8%)]. On multivariate analysis, obesity [odds ratio (OR): 2.68, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 6.77], male sex (OR: 2.19, 95% CI: 1.10, 4.37), education level less than high school (OR: 2.98, 95% CI: 1.10, 8.06), and current smoking (OR: 2.06, 95% CI: 1.03, 4.11) were characteristics independently associated with higher odds of ISH among young adults. Relative increases in prevalence between the surveys were noted for current smoking (24.3 vs. 51.5%), obesity (33.9 vs. 42.7%) and low educational level (18.4 vs. 38.6%). CONCLUSION: ISH among young adults is increasing in prevalence, and is more common than systolic/diastolic hypertension. Obesity, smoking, and low socioeconomic status appear to be important determinants of ISH among young adults and have all increased over the last decade.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)15-23
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Hypertension
Volume28
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2010
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Nutrition Surveys
Young Adult
Hypertension
Odds Ratio
Confidence Intervals
Obesity
Smoking
Logistic Models
Sex Ratio
Social Class
Antihypertensive Agents
Multivariate Analysis
Age Groups
Education

Keywords

  • Blood pressure
  • Epidemiology
  • Systolic hypertension
  • United States
  • Young adults

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Prevalence and determinants of isolated systolic hypertension among young adults : The 1999-2004 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. / Grebla, Regina C.; Rodriguez, Carlos J.; Borrell, Luisa N.; Pickering, Thomas G.

In: Journal of Hypertension, Vol. 28, No. 1, 01.01.2010, p. 15-23.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Prevalence and determinants of isolated systolic hypertension among young adults: The 1999-2004 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Little is known about isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) in younger adults. We examined the prevalence and determinants of ISH in this age group using the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) and made comparisons using data from NHANES III (1988-1994). METHODS: A total of 5685 adults aged 18-39 years and not on antihypertensive medications were analyzed. Prevalence estimates of ISH and potential risk factors were estimated by age and sex. For comparison of prevalence estimates with published reports of NHANES III data, age cutoffs (18-24, 25-34, and 35-44 year) by sex were also employed. A multivariate logistic regression model tested independent determinants of ISH. RESULTS: ISH in young adults had a higher prevalence than systolic/diastolic hypertension (1.57 ± 0.23{\%} vs. 0.93 ± 0.18{\%}). ISH prevalence increased within the last decade particularly for men for each respective age category [men (0.8 vs. 2.2{\%}, 1.3 vs. 2.4{\%}, 1.3 vs. 2.4{\%}), women (0.0 vs. 0.3{\%}, 0.1 vs. 0.7{\%}, 1.7 vs. 1.8{\%})]. On multivariate analysis, obesity [odds ratio (OR): 2.68, 95{\%} confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 6.77], male sex (OR: 2.19, 95{\%} CI: 1.10, 4.37), education level less than high school (OR: 2.98, 95{\%} CI: 1.10, 8.06), and current smoking (OR: 2.06, 95{\%} CI: 1.03, 4.11) were characteristics independently associated with higher odds of ISH among young adults. Relative increases in prevalence between the surveys were noted for current smoking (24.3 vs. 51.5{\%}), obesity (33.9 vs. 42.7{\%}) and low educational level (18.4 vs. 38.6{\%}). CONCLUSION: ISH among young adults is increasing in prevalence, and is more common than systolic/diastolic hypertension. Obesity, smoking, and low socioeconomic status appear to be important determinants of ISH among young adults and have all increased over the last decade.",
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T1 - Prevalence and determinants of isolated systolic hypertension among young adults

T2 - The 1999-2004 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

AU - Grebla, Regina C.

AU - Rodriguez, Carlos J.

AU - Borrell, Luisa N.

AU - Pickering, Thomas G.

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N2 - BACKGROUND: Little is known about isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) in younger adults. We examined the prevalence and determinants of ISH in this age group using the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) and made comparisons using data from NHANES III (1988-1994). METHODS: A total of 5685 adults aged 18-39 years and not on antihypertensive medications were analyzed. Prevalence estimates of ISH and potential risk factors were estimated by age and sex. For comparison of prevalence estimates with published reports of NHANES III data, age cutoffs (18-24, 25-34, and 35-44 year) by sex were also employed. A multivariate logistic regression model tested independent determinants of ISH. RESULTS: ISH in young adults had a higher prevalence than systolic/diastolic hypertension (1.57 ± 0.23% vs. 0.93 ± 0.18%). ISH prevalence increased within the last decade particularly for men for each respective age category [men (0.8 vs. 2.2%, 1.3 vs. 2.4%, 1.3 vs. 2.4%), women (0.0 vs. 0.3%, 0.1 vs. 0.7%, 1.7 vs. 1.8%)]. On multivariate analysis, obesity [odds ratio (OR): 2.68, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 6.77], male sex (OR: 2.19, 95% CI: 1.10, 4.37), education level less than high school (OR: 2.98, 95% CI: 1.10, 8.06), and current smoking (OR: 2.06, 95% CI: 1.03, 4.11) were characteristics independently associated with higher odds of ISH among young adults. Relative increases in prevalence between the surveys were noted for current smoking (24.3 vs. 51.5%), obesity (33.9 vs. 42.7%) and low educational level (18.4 vs. 38.6%). CONCLUSION: ISH among young adults is increasing in prevalence, and is more common than systolic/diastolic hypertension. Obesity, smoking, and low socioeconomic status appear to be important determinants of ISH among young adults and have all increased over the last decade.

AB - BACKGROUND: Little is known about isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) in younger adults. We examined the prevalence and determinants of ISH in this age group using the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) and made comparisons using data from NHANES III (1988-1994). METHODS: A total of 5685 adults aged 18-39 years and not on antihypertensive medications were analyzed. Prevalence estimates of ISH and potential risk factors were estimated by age and sex. For comparison of prevalence estimates with published reports of NHANES III data, age cutoffs (18-24, 25-34, and 35-44 year) by sex were also employed. A multivariate logistic regression model tested independent determinants of ISH. RESULTS: ISH in young adults had a higher prevalence than systolic/diastolic hypertension (1.57 ± 0.23% vs. 0.93 ± 0.18%). ISH prevalence increased within the last decade particularly for men for each respective age category [men (0.8 vs. 2.2%, 1.3 vs. 2.4%, 1.3 vs. 2.4%), women (0.0 vs. 0.3%, 0.1 vs. 0.7%, 1.7 vs. 1.8%)]. On multivariate analysis, obesity [odds ratio (OR): 2.68, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 6.77], male sex (OR: 2.19, 95% CI: 1.10, 4.37), education level less than high school (OR: 2.98, 95% CI: 1.10, 8.06), and current smoking (OR: 2.06, 95% CI: 1.03, 4.11) were characteristics independently associated with higher odds of ISH among young adults. Relative increases in prevalence between the surveys were noted for current smoking (24.3 vs. 51.5%), obesity (33.9 vs. 42.7%) and low educational level (18.4 vs. 38.6%). CONCLUSION: ISH among young adults is increasing in prevalence, and is more common than systolic/diastolic hypertension. Obesity, smoking, and low socioeconomic status appear to be important determinants of ISH among young adults and have all increased over the last decade.

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KW - United States

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