Preoperative Short Form Health Survey Score Is Predictive of Return to Play and Minimal Clinically Important Difference at a Minimum 2-Year Follow-up after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

Benedict U. Nwachukwu, Brenda Chang, Pramod B. Voleti, Patricia Berkanish, Matthew R. Cohn, David W. Altchek, Answorth A. Allen, Riley J. Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: There is increased interest in understanding the preoperative determinants of postoperative outcomes. Return to play (RTP) and the patient-reported minimal clinically important difference (MCID) are useful measures of postoperative outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Purpose: To define the MCID after ACLR and to investigate the role of preoperative outcome scores for predicting the MCID and RTP after ACLR. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: There were 294 active athletes enrolled as part of an institutional ACL registry with a minimum 2-year follow-up who were eligible for inclusion. A questionnaire was administered to elicit factors associated with RTP. Patient demographic and clinical data as well as patient-reported outcome measures were captured as part of the registry. Outcome measures included the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective knee evaluation form, Lysholm scale, and 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS). Preoperative outcome score thresholds predictive of RTP were determined using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) with area under the curve (AUC) analysis. The MCID was calculated using a distribution-based method. Multivariable logistic models were fitted to identify predictors for achieving the MCID and RTP. Results: At a mean (±SD) follow-up of 3.7 ± 0.7 years, 231 patients were included from a total 294 eligible patients. The mean age and body mass index were 26.7 ± 12.5 years and 23.7 ± 3.2 kg/m2, respectively. Of the 231 patients, 201 (87.0%) returned to play at a mean time of 10.1 months. Two-year postoperative scores on all measures were significantly increased from preoperative scores (IKDC: 50.1 ± 15.6 to 87.4 ± 10.7; Lysholm: 61.2 ± 18.1 to 89.5 ± 10.4; SF-12 PCS: 41.5 ± 9.0 to 54.7 ± 4.6; SF-12 MCS: 53.6 ± 8.1 to 55.7 ± 5.7; P <.001 for all). The corresponding MCID values were 9.0 (IKDC), 10.0 (Lysholm), 5.1 (SF-12 PCS), and 4.3 (SF-12 MCS). Preoperative score thresholds predictive of RTP were the following: IKDC, 60.9; Lysholm, 57.0; SF-12 PCS, 42.3; and SF-12 MCS, 48.3. These thresholds were not independently predictive but achieved significance as part of the multivariable analysis. In the multivariable analysis for RTP, preoperative SF-12 PCS scores above 42.3 (odds ratio [OR], 2.73; 95% CI, 1.09-7.62) and SF-12 MCS scores above 48.3 (OR, 4.41; 95% CI, 1.80-10.98) were predictive for achieving RTP; an ACL allograft (OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.06-1.00) was negatively predictive of RTP. In the multivariable analysis for the MCID, patients with higher preoperative scores were less likely to achieve the MCID (P <.0001); however, a higher preoperative SF-12 MCS score was predictive of achieving the MCID on the IKDC form (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.11-1.52) and Lysholm scale (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.00-1.16). Medial meniscal injuries, older age, and white race were also associated with a decreased likelihood for achieving the MCID. Conclusion: Preoperative SF-12 MCS and PCS scores were predictive of RTP after ACLR; patients scoring above 42.3 on the SF-12 PCS and 48.3 on the SF-12 MCS were more likely to achieve RTP. Additionally, we defined the MCID after ACLR and found that higher SF-12 MCS scores were predictive of achieving the MCID on knee-specific questionnaires.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2784-2790
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Sports Medicine
Volume45
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2017

Fingerprint

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
Health Surveys
Knee
Documentation
Odds Ratio
Registries
Return to Sport
Minimal Clinically Important Difference
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
ROC Curve
Athletes
Area Under Curve
Allografts
Case-Control Studies
Body Mass Index
Logistic Models

Keywords

  • anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction
  • health-related quality of life
  • minimal clinically important difference
  • patient-reported outcome
  • return to play
  • SF-12

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Cite this

Preoperative Short Form Health Survey Score Is Predictive of Return to Play and Minimal Clinically Important Difference at a Minimum 2-Year Follow-up after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. / Nwachukwu, Benedict U.; Chang, Brenda; Voleti, Pramod B.; Berkanish, Patricia; Cohn, Matthew R.; Altchek, David W.; Allen, Answorth A.; Williams, Riley J.

In: American Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol. 45, No. 12, 01.10.2017, p. 2784-2790.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nwachukwu, Benedict U. ; Chang, Brenda ; Voleti, Pramod B. ; Berkanish, Patricia ; Cohn, Matthew R. ; Altchek, David W. ; Allen, Answorth A. ; Williams, Riley J. / Preoperative Short Form Health Survey Score Is Predictive of Return to Play and Minimal Clinically Important Difference at a Minimum 2-Year Follow-up after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. In: American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2017 ; Vol. 45, No. 12. pp. 2784-2790.
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title = "Preoperative Short Form Health Survey Score Is Predictive of Return to Play and Minimal Clinically Important Difference at a Minimum 2-Year Follow-up after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction",
abstract = "Background: There is increased interest in understanding the preoperative determinants of postoperative outcomes. Return to play (RTP) and the patient-reported minimal clinically important difference (MCID) are useful measures of postoperative outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Purpose: To define the MCID after ACLR and to investigate the role of preoperative outcome scores for predicting the MCID and RTP after ACLR. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: There were 294 active athletes enrolled as part of an institutional ACL registry with a minimum 2-year follow-up who were eligible for inclusion. A questionnaire was administered to elicit factors associated with RTP. Patient demographic and clinical data as well as patient-reported outcome measures were captured as part of the registry. Outcome measures included the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective knee evaluation form, Lysholm scale, and 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS). Preoperative outcome score thresholds predictive of RTP were determined using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) with area under the curve (AUC) analysis. The MCID was calculated using a distribution-based method. Multivariable logistic models were fitted to identify predictors for achieving the MCID and RTP. Results: At a mean (±SD) follow-up of 3.7 ± 0.7 years, 231 patients were included from a total 294 eligible patients. The mean age and body mass index were 26.7 ± 12.5 years and 23.7 ± 3.2 kg/m2, respectively. Of the 231 patients, 201 (87.0{\%}) returned to play at a mean time of 10.1 months. Two-year postoperative scores on all measures were significantly increased from preoperative scores (IKDC: 50.1 ± 15.6 to 87.4 ± 10.7; Lysholm: 61.2 ± 18.1 to 89.5 ± 10.4; SF-12 PCS: 41.5 ± 9.0 to 54.7 ± 4.6; SF-12 MCS: 53.6 ± 8.1 to 55.7 ± 5.7; P <.001 for all). The corresponding MCID values were 9.0 (IKDC), 10.0 (Lysholm), 5.1 (SF-12 PCS), and 4.3 (SF-12 MCS). Preoperative score thresholds predictive of RTP were the following: IKDC, 60.9; Lysholm, 57.0; SF-12 PCS, 42.3; and SF-12 MCS, 48.3. These thresholds were not independently predictive but achieved significance as part of the multivariable analysis. In the multivariable analysis for RTP, preoperative SF-12 PCS scores above 42.3 (odds ratio [OR], 2.73; 95{\%} CI, 1.09-7.62) and SF-12 MCS scores above 48.3 (OR, 4.41; 95{\%} CI, 1.80-10.98) were predictive for achieving RTP; an ACL allograft (OR, 0.26; 95{\%} CI, 0.06-1.00) was negatively predictive of RTP. In the multivariable analysis for the MCID, patients with higher preoperative scores were less likely to achieve the MCID (P <.0001); however, a higher preoperative SF-12 MCS score was predictive of achieving the MCID on the IKDC form (OR, 1.27; 95{\%} CI, 1.11-1.52) and Lysholm scale (OR, 1.08; 95{\%} CI, 1.00-1.16). Medial meniscal injuries, older age, and white race were also associated with a decreased likelihood for achieving the MCID. Conclusion: Preoperative SF-12 MCS and PCS scores were predictive of RTP after ACLR; patients scoring above 42.3 on the SF-12 PCS and 48.3 on the SF-12 MCS were more likely to achieve RTP. Additionally, we defined the MCID after ACLR and found that higher SF-12 MCS scores were predictive of achieving the MCID on knee-specific questionnaires.",
keywords = "anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, health-related quality of life, minimal clinically important difference, patient-reported outcome, return to play, SF-12",
author = "Nwachukwu, {Benedict U.} and Brenda Chang and Voleti, {Pramod B.} and Patricia Berkanish and Cohn, {Matthew R.} and Altchek, {David W.} and Allen, {Answorth A.} and Williams, {Riley J.}",
year = "2017",
month = "10",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1177/0363546517714472",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "45",
pages = "2784--2790",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Preoperative Short Form Health Survey Score Is Predictive of Return to Play and Minimal Clinically Important Difference at a Minimum 2-Year Follow-up after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

AU - Nwachukwu, Benedict U.

AU - Chang, Brenda

AU - Voleti, Pramod B.

AU - Berkanish, Patricia

AU - Cohn, Matthew R.

AU - Altchek, David W.

AU - Allen, Answorth A.

AU - Williams, Riley J.

PY - 2017/10/1

Y1 - 2017/10/1

N2 - Background: There is increased interest in understanding the preoperative determinants of postoperative outcomes. Return to play (RTP) and the patient-reported minimal clinically important difference (MCID) are useful measures of postoperative outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Purpose: To define the MCID after ACLR and to investigate the role of preoperative outcome scores for predicting the MCID and RTP after ACLR. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: There were 294 active athletes enrolled as part of an institutional ACL registry with a minimum 2-year follow-up who were eligible for inclusion. A questionnaire was administered to elicit factors associated with RTP. Patient demographic and clinical data as well as patient-reported outcome measures were captured as part of the registry. Outcome measures included the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective knee evaluation form, Lysholm scale, and 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS). Preoperative outcome score thresholds predictive of RTP were determined using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) with area under the curve (AUC) analysis. The MCID was calculated using a distribution-based method. Multivariable logistic models were fitted to identify predictors for achieving the MCID and RTP. Results: At a mean (±SD) follow-up of 3.7 ± 0.7 years, 231 patients were included from a total 294 eligible patients. The mean age and body mass index were 26.7 ± 12.5 years and 23.7 ± 3.2 kg/m2, respectively. Of the 231 patients, 201 (87.0%) returned to play at a mean time of 10.1 months. Two-year postoperative scores on all measures were significantly increased from preoperative scores (IKDC: 50.1 ± 15.6 to 87.4 ± 10.7; Lysholm: 61.2 ± 18.1 to 89.5 ± 10.4; SF-12 PCS: 41.5 ± 9.0 to 54.7 ± 4.6; SF-12 MCS: 53.6 ± 8.1 to 55.7 ± 5.7; P <.001 for all). The corresponding MCID values were 9.0 (IKDC), 10.0 (Lysholm), 5.1 (SF-12 PCS), and 4.3 (SF-12 MCS). Preoperative score thresholds predictive of RTP were the following: IKDC, 60.9; Lysholm, 57.0; SF-12 PCS, 42.3; and SF-12 MCS, 48.3. These thresholds were not independently predictive but achieved significance as part of the multivariable analysis. In the multivariable analysis for RTP, preoperative SF-12 PCS scores above 42.3 (odds ratio [OR], 2.73; 95% CI, 1.09-7.62) and SF-12 MCS scores above 48.3 (OR, 4.41; 95% CI, 1.80-10.98) were predictive for achieving RTP; an ACL allograft (OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.06-1.00) was negatively predictive of RTP. In the multivariable analysis for the MCID, patients with higher preoperative scores were less likely to achieve the MCID (P <.0001); however, a higher preoperative SF-12 MCS score was predictive of achieving the MCID on the IKDC form (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.11-1.52) and Lysholm scale (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.00-1.16). Medial meniscal injuries, older age, and white race were also associated with a decreased likelihood for achieving the MCID. Conclusion: Preoperative SF-12 MCS and PCS scores were predictive of RTP after ACLR; patients scoring above 42.3 on the SF-12 PCS and 48.3 on the SF-12 MCS were more likely to achieve RTP. Additionally, we defined the MCID after ACLR and found that higher SF-12 MCS scores were predictive of achieving the MCID on knee-specific questionnaires.

AB - Background: There is increased interest in understanding the preoperative determinants of postoperative outcomes. Return to play (RTP) and the patient-reported minimal clinically important difference (MCID) are useful measures of postoperative outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Purpose: To define the MCID after ACLR and to investigate the role of preoperative outcome scores for predicting the MCID and RTP after ACLR. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: There were 294 active athletes enrolled as part of an institutional ACL registry with a minimum 2-year follow-up who were eligible for inclusion. A questionnaire was administered to elicit factors associated with RTP. Patient demographic and clinical data as well as patient-reported outcome measures were captured as part of the registry. Outcome measures included the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective knee evaluation form, Lysholm scale, and 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS). Preoperative outcome score thresholds predictive of RTP were determined using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) with area under the curve (AUC) analysis. The MCID was calculated using a distribution-based method. Multivariable logistic models were fitted to identify predictors for achieving the MCID and RTP. Results: At a mean (±SD) follow-up of 3.7 ± 0.7 years, 231 patients were included from a total 294 eligible patients. The mean age and body mass index were 26.7 ± 12.5 years and 23.7 ± 3.2 kg/m2, respectively. Of the 231 patients, 201 (87.0%) returned to play at a mean time of 10.1 months. Two-year postoperative scores on all measures were significantly increased from preoperative scores (IKDC: 50.1 ± 15.6 to 87.4 ± 10.7; Lysholm: 61.2 ± 18.1 to 89.5 ± 10.4; SF-12 PCS: 41.5 ± 9.0 to 54.7 ± 4.6; SF-12 MCS: 53.6 ± 8.1 to 55.7 ± 5.7; P <.001 for all). The corresponding MCID values were 9.0 (IKDC), 10.0 (Lysholm), 5.1 (SF-12 PCS), and 4.3 (SF-12 MCS). Preoperative score thresholds predictive of RTP were the following: IKDC, 60.9; Lysholm, 57.0; SF-12 PCS, 42.3; and SF-12 MCS, 48.3. These thresholds were not independently predictive but achieved significance as part of the multivariable analysis. In the multivariable analysis for RTP, preoperative SF-12 PCS scores above 42.3 (odds ratio [OR], 2.73; 95% CI, 1.09-7.62) and SF-12 MCS scores above 48.3 (OR, 4.41; 95% CI, 1.80-10.98) were predictive for achieving RTP; an ACL allograft (OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.06-1.00) was negatively predictive of RTP. In the multivariable analysis for the MCID, patients with higher preoperative scores were less likely to achieve the MCID (P <.0001); however, a higher preoperative SF-12 MCS score was predictive of achieving the MCID on the IKDC form (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.11-1.52) and Lysholm scale (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.00-1.16). Medial meniscal injuries, older age, and white race were also associated with a decreased likelihood for achieving the MCID. Conclusion: Preoperative SF-12 MCS and PCS scores were predictive of RTP after ACLR; patients scoring above 42.3 on the SF-12 PCS and 48.3 on the SF-12 MCS were more likely to achieve RTP. Additionally, we defined the MCID after ACLR and found that higher SF-12 MCS scores were predictive of achieving the MCID on knee-specific questionnaires.

KW - anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

KW - health-related quality of life

KW - minimal clinically important difference

KW - patient-reported outcome

KW - return to play

KW - SF-12

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