Introduction Our institution implemented a preoperative protocol to identify high-risk cases for which power morcellation should be avoided. Material and methods In this retrospective cohort study, an institutional protocol requiring preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging and serum Lactate Dehydrogenase levels was implemented. Chart review was performed including all women who underwent intra-abdominal surgery for symptomatic fibroids from 4/23/2013 to 4/23/2015. Results A total of 1, 085 women were included, 479 before and 606 after implementation of the Magnetic Resonance Imaging / Lactate Dehydrogenase protocol. The pre-protocol group had more post-menopausal women (4% vs. 2%, p = 0.022) and women using tamoxifen (2% vs. 0%, p = 0.022) than those in the post-protocol group, but baseline patient characteristics were otherwise similar between groups. Incidence of malignant pathological diagnoses did not change significantly over the time period in relation to protocol implementation. The rate of open surgery for both hysterectomy and myomectomy remained the same in the year preceding and the year following initiation of the protocol (open hysterectomy rate was 19% vs. 16% in pre- and post-protocol groups, respectively, P = 0.463, and open myomectomy rate was 10% vs. 9% rates in pre- and post-protocol groups, respectively, P = 0.776). There was a significant decrease in the use of power morcellation (66% in pre- and 50% in post-protocol cohorts, p<0.001) and an increased use of containment bags (1% in pre- and 19% in post-protocol cohort). When analyzing the subset of women who had abnormal Magnetic Resonance Imaging / and Lactate Dehydrogenase results, abnormal Magnetic Resonance Imaging results alone resulted in higher rates of open approach (65% for abnormal vs. 35% for normal). Similarly, a combination of abnormal Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Lactate Dehydrogenase tests resulted in higher rates of open approach (70% for abnormal and 17% for normal). Abnormal Lactate Dehydrogenase results alone did not influence route. Conclusions Rates of MIS procedures were decreased for women with abnormal preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging results. False positive results appear to be one of the main drivers for the use of an open surgical route.
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