Objective hemodynamic assessment of pacemaker patients is necessary for gauging responses to changes in programming or other conditions that affect the circulation. Impedance cardiography permits noninvasive, repetitive determinations of cardiac output at short intervals, but data regarding variability of this method in patients with pacemakers is unavailable. Thirty-eight patients with implanted pacemakers (24 DDD, 14 VVI) and six normal subjects were studied. A computerized impedance cardiograph was used to calculate cardiac output from the product of the first derivative of the thoracic impedance signal (dZ/dt), the ventricular ejection time, and heart rate. Each patient was studied while supine after a period of at least 15 minutes of rest and repeated impedance measurements (about ten) were performed. Fourteen patients were studied in sinus rhythm, 24 were studied during DDD pacing, and 32 patients were studied during VVI pacing. Cardiac and stroke indices were calculated 706 times on the basis of 11,296 accepted beats. Variability was assessed by methods that analyzed serial measurements and variability between two consecutive and nonconsecutive measurements. The mean indices and coefficients of variation of two measurements and of serial measurements in sinus rhythm and during DDD pacing were 4%; in VVI it was 6%. The precision of impedance cardiography in all pacing modes, as demonstrated by analysis of variability, indicates that detected changes of stroke volume and cardiac output > 7% on serial (two and more) measurements, performed by the same operator and during the same session, represent true hemodynamic alterations with 95% confidence. Conclusions are that the precision of impedance cardiography may be comparable or superior to other commonly used techniques and that the data obtained by this technique is valuable investigationally and clinically.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||4|
|Journal||PACE - Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology|
|Issue number||11 II|
|State||Published - Nov 20 1992|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine