Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) results in periventricular inflammation, hypomyelination of the white matter, and hydrocephalus in premature infants. No effective therapy exists to prevent these disorders. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonists reduce inflammation, alleviate free radical generation, and enhance microglial phagocytosis, promoting clearance of debris and red blood cells. We hypothesized that activation of PPAR-γ would enhance myelination, reduce hydrocephalus, and promote neurological recovery in newborns with IVH. These hypotheses were tested in a preterm rabbit model of IVH; autopsy brain samples from premature infants with and without IVH were analyzed. We found that IVH augmented PPAR-γ expression in microglia of both preterm human infants and rabbit kits. The treatment with PPAR-γ agonist or PPAR-γ overexpression by adenovirus delivery further elevated PPAR-γ levels in microglia, reduced proinflammatory cytokines, increased microglial phagocytosis, and improved oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) maturation in kits with IVH. Transcriptomic analyses of OPCs identified previously unrecognized PPAR-γ–induced genes for purinergic signaling, cyclic adenosine monophosphate generation, and antioxidant production, which would reprogram these progenitors toward promoting myelination. RNA-sequencing analyses of microglia revealed PPAR-γ–triggered down-regulation of several proinflammatory genes and transcripts having roles in Parkinson’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, contributing to neurological recovery in kits with IVH. Accordingly, PPAR-γ activation enhanced myelination and neurological function in kits with IVH. This also enhanced microglial phagocytosis of red blood cells but did not reduce hydrocephalus. Treatment with PPAR-γ agonist might enhance myelination and neurological recovery in premature infants with IVH.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|State||Published - Sep 7 2021|
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