Postexposure prophylaxis for HIV.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Postexposure prophylaxis represents an advance in the management of percutaneous exposure to HIV in the workplace, but its efficacy in other settings needs further study. Three types of occupational exposure, percutaneous, mucous membrane, skin contact or loss of skin integrity, the postexposure prophylaxis to be used or offered, and the risk data and assessment for HIV acquisition are examined. Analysis of HIV transmission through percutaneous exposure reveals that occupational risk for health care workers is increased by deep injury to the exposed worker, visible blood on the injuring device, exposure of the device to source patients' vein or artery, and source patient's death from AIDS within 60 days of the accident. Prophylaxis for percutaneous exposure, if indicated, should be initiated within 1 to 2 hours to be effective. HIV antibody titers should be measured immediately and at 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 6 months after exposure. AZT prophylaxis following percutaneous occupational exposure has dramatically decreased transmission in this setting and multiple drug regimens have become the standard of care to further increase efficacy. Sexual contact is the most frequent means of transmitting HIV infection and reducing exposure is the mainstay of public health efforts. Prophylaxis after non-occupational exposures such as sexual intercourse or sharing needles could potentially decrease transmission, although efficacy has not yet been demonstrated. Routine prophylaxis after sexual exposure may be an ineffective strategy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAIDS clinical care
Volume9
Issue number8
StatePublished - 1997
Externally publishedYes

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HIV
Occupational Exposure
Needle Sharing
Equipment and Supplies
HIV Antibodies
Skin
Coitus
Occupational Health
Standard of Care
Workplace
HIV Infections
Accidents
Veins
Mucous Membrane
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Public Health
Arteries
Delivery of Health Care
Wounds and Injuries
Pharmaceutical Preparations

Cite this

Postexposure prophylaxis for HIV. / Daily, Johanna P.

In: AIDS clinical care, Vol. 9, No. 8, 1997.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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