Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine abnormality in women of reproductive age and carries with it significant health risks, including infertility, endometrial hyperplasia, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The workup of PCOS has evolved to include the use of pelvic ultrasonography (US). Ovarian imaging is crucial in the evaluation of patients with suspected PCOS. Although findings of polycystic ovaries are commonly seen at routine US and are frequently not associated with PCOS, awareness of the criteria and definitions used in the diagnosis of PCOS is important, especially in patients who are being evaluated for ovulatory dysfunction or hyperandrogenism. The imaging report should be specific and should include ovarian volumes and antral follicle counts, in addition to other pertinent findings (eg, the presence of a dominant follicle or corpus luteum). Because patients are frequently referred for radiologic imaging as a part of clinical workup, and polycystic ovaries are a common incidental finding in women undergoing US for other gynecologic complaints, radiologists should be aware of the current diagnostic criteria for PCOS, the role of imaging in workup for this abnormality, and the pertinent reporting parameters for pelvic US.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging