Background: Biomarkers correlating with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection activity/burden in asymptomatic individuals are urgently needed to identify and treat those at highest risk for developing active tuberculosis (TB). Our main objective was to identify plasma host protein biomarkers that change over time prior to developing TB in people living with HIV (PLHIV). Methods: Using multiplex MRM-MS, we investigated host protein expressions from 2 years before until time of TB diagnosis in longitudinally collected (every 3-6 months) and stored plasma from PLHIV with incident TB, identified within a South African (SA) and US cohort. We performed temporal trend and discriminant analyses for proteins, and, to assure clinical relevance, we further compared protein levels at TB diagnosis to interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA; SA) or tuberculin-skin test (TST; US) positive and negative cohort subjects without TB. SA and US exploratory data were analyzed separately. Findings: We identified 15 proteins in the SA (n=30) and 10 in the US (n=24) incident TB subjects which both changed from 2 years prior until time of TB diagnosis after controlling for 10% false discovery rate, and were significantly different at time of TB diagnosis compared to non-TB subjects (p<0.01). Five proteins, CD14, A2GL, NID1, SCTM1, and A1AG1, overlapped between both cohorts. Furthermore, after cross-validation, panels of 5 – 12 proteins were able to predict TB up to two years before diagnosis. Interpretation: Host proteins can be biomarkers for increasing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection activity/burden, incipient TB, and predict TB development in PLHIV. Funding: NIH/NIAID AI117927, AI146329, and AI127173 to JMA.
- Incipient TB
- Subclinical TB
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)