Plasma aluminum levels during sucralfate prophylaxis for stress ulceration in critically ill patients on continuous venovenous hemofiltration: A randomized, controlled trial

Hussain Mulla, Giles Peek, David Upton, Edward Lin, Mahmoud Loubani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: To investigate plasma aluminum levels in critically ill patients requiring continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH), while receiving sucralfate for stress ulcer prophylaxis. Design: Randomized, controlled study. Setting: Cardiothoracic intensive care unit. Patients: Twenty postoperative cardiac surgical patients Interventions: Twenty patients requiring CVVH support for acute renal failure were randomized into two groups for concurrent stress ulcer prophylaxis. Group 1 (n = 10) received nasogastric sucralfate, and group 2 patients received intravenous ranitidine. Plasma aluminum samples were analyzed at baseline and on days 1, 4, 8, and 14. Measurements and Main Results: In both the sucralfate and ranitidine groups, clinical characteristics, number of days the patients were on CVVH support (median, 5.5 [range, 2-32] days, and median, 3 [range, 2-18] days, respectively) and duration of prophylaxis (median, 12 [range, 4-42] days, and median, 16 [range, 3-62] days, respectively) were similar. There were no significant differences in the baseline aluminum concentrations (median, 0.37 [range, 0.15-1.63] μmol/L, vs. median, 0.32 [range, 0.11-1.0] μmol/L; p = .79). On initiation of therapy, aluminum levels in the sucralfate group increased dramatically on day 1 (median, 0.87 [range, 0.26-4.4] μmol/L) and peaked on day 4 (median, 2.84 [range, 1.52-4.44] μmol/L) with seven of the ten patients exhibiting levels of >2 μmol/L. In the ranitidine group, there were no significant elevations in aluminum levels above baseline. Analysis of the two groups at the four time points revealed that aluminum levels in the sucralfate group were up to 14 times higher, with the confidence intervals suggesting that the true value may be 2-27 times higher (p < .0001). On cessation of CVVH, a rapid decline in aluminum levels was observed. No clinical manifestations of these potentially toxic levels were observed. Conclusions: The use of sucralfate for stress ulcer prophylaxis in patients requiring CVVH results in toxic elevations in plasma aluminum levels. Alternative agents should be considered for prophylaxis in these patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)267-271
Number of pages5
JournalCritical care medicine
Volume29
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2001

Keywords

  • Acute
  • Aluminum
  • Critical illness
  • Drug toxicity
  • Hemofiltration
  • Histamine H
  • Kidney failure
  • Mechanical ventilation
  • Plasma
  • Receptor antagonists
  • Renal replacement therapy
  • Stress ulcer prophylaxis
  • Sucralfate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

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