Peritraumatic reactions associated with the World Trade Center disaster

Daphne Simeon, Jennifer Greenberg, Margaret Knutelska, James Schmeidler, Eric Hollander

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

41 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: The World Trade Center disaster was of unprecedented magnitude and impact in U.S. history. The authors conducted a pilot survey investigating these effects. Method: A questionnaire regarding the disaster was sent to responders to an advertisement. It included demographic and disaster-exposure questions and three scales applied to "during and shortly after" the disaster. Results: Despite widely ranging exposure, scores for distress (Peritraumatic Distress Inventory), dissociation (Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire), and posttraumatic stress (Impact of Event Scale - Revised) were markedly elevated (N=75). After covariance for exposure, the distress factor of loss of control most strongly predicted both early dissociation and posttraumatic stress. Life threat specifically contributed to arousal. Dissociation did not contribute beyond distress to posttraumatic stress, with the exception of re-experiencing. Conclusions: This survey of reactions to the World Trade Center disaster revealed high levels of early symptoms and suggested similar but independent pathways toward dissociation and posttraumatic stress.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1702-1705
Number of pages4
JournalAmerican Journal of Psychiatry
Volume160
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2003
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Disasters
Arousal
Surveys and Questionnaires
History
Demography
Equipment and Supplies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Peritraumatic reactions associated with the World Trade Center disaster. / Simeon, Daphne; Greenberg, Jennifer; Knutelska, Margaret; Schmeidler, James; Hollander, Eric.

In: American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 160, No. 9, 09.2003, p. 1702-1705.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Simeon, Daphne ; Greenberg, Jennifer ; Knutelska, Margaret ; Schmeidler, James ; Hollander, Eric. / Peritraumatic reactions associated with the World Trade Center disaster. In: American Journal of Psychiatry. 2003 ; Vol. 160, No. 9. pp. 1702-1705.
@article{7589403fa8d2487883e504ddcef540c1,
title = "Peritraumatic reactions associated with the World Trade Center disaster",
abstract = "Objective: The World Trade Center disaster was of unprecedented magnitude and impact in U.S. history. The authors conducted a pilot survey investigating these effects. Method: A questionnaire regarding the disaster was sent to responders to an advertisement. It included demographic and disaster-exposure questions and three scales applied to {"}during and shortly after{"} the disaster. Results: Despite widely ranging exposure, scores for distress (Peritraumatic Distress Inventory), dissociation (Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire), and posttraumatic stress (Impact of Event Scale - Revised) were markedly elevated (N=75). After covariance for exposure, the distress factor of loss of control most strongly predicted both early dissociation and posttraumatic stress. Life threat specifically contributed to arousal. Dissociation did not contribute beyond distress to posttraumatic stress, with the exception of re-experiencing. Conclusions: This survey of reactions to the World Trade Center disaster revealed high levels of early symptoms and suggested similar but independent pathways toward dissociation and posttraumatic stress.",
author = "Daphne Simeon and Jennifer Greenberg and Margaret Knutelska and James Schmeidler and Eric Hollander",
year = "2003",
month = "9",
doi = "10.1176/appi.ajp.160.9.1702",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "160",
pages = "1702--1705",
journal = "American Journal of Psychiatry",
issn = "0002-953X",
publisher = "American Psychiatric Association",
number = "9",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Peritraumatic reactions associated with the World Trade Center disaster

AU - Simeon, Daphne

AU - Greenberg, Jennifer

AU - Knutelska, Margaret

AU - Schmeidler, James

AU - Hollander, Eric

PY - 2003/9

Y1 - 2003/9

N2 - Objective: The World Trade Center disaster was of unprecedented magnitude and impact in U.S. history. The authors conducted a pilot survey investigating these effects. Method: A questionnaire regarding the disaster was sent to responders to an advertisement. It included demographic and disaster-exposure questions and three scales applied to "during and shortly after" the disaster. Results: Despite widely ranging exposure, scores for distress (Peritraumatic Distress Inventory), dissociation (Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire), and posttraumatic stress (Impact of Event Scale - Revised) were markedly elevated (N=75). After covariance for exposure, the distress factor of loss of control most strongly predicted both early dissociation and posttraumatic stress. Life threat specifically contributed to arousal. Dissociation did not contribute beyond distress to posttraumatic stress, with the exception of re-experiencing. Conclusions: This survey of reactions to the World Trade Center disaster revealed high levels of early symptoms and suggested similar but independent pathways toward dissociation and posttraumatic stress.

AB - Objective: The World Trade Center disaster was of unprecedented magnitude and impact in U.S. history. The authors conducted a pilot survey investigating these effects. Method: A questionnaire regarding the disaster was sent to responders to an advertisement. It included demographic and disaster-exposure questions and three scales applied to "during and shortly after" the disaster. Results: Despite widely ranging exposure, scores for distress (Peritraumatic Distress Inventory), dissociation (Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire), and posttraumatic stress (Impact of Event Scale - Revised) were markedly elevated (N=75). After covariance for exposure, the distress factor of loss of control most strongly predicted both early dissociation and posttraumatic stress. Life threat specifically contributed to arousal. Dissociation did not contribute beyond distress to posttraumatic stress, with the exception of re-experiencing. Conclusions: This survey of reactions to the World Trade Center disaster revealed high levels of early symptoms and suggested similar but independent pathways toward dissociation and posttraumatic stress.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0642374517&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0642374517&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1176/appi.ajp.160.9.1702

DO - 10.1176/appi.ajp.160.9.1702

M3 - Article

C2 - 12944351

AN - SCOPUS:0642374517

VL - 160

SP - 1702

EP - 1705

JO - American Journal of Psychiatry

JF - American Journal of Psychiatry

SN - 0002-953X

IS - 9

ER -