Diabetes mellitus is a ubiquitous disease which affects millions of Americans (7% of the US population),1 incurs significant comorbidities, and costs billions annually in health-care dollars. The morbidities associated with diabetes mellitus include a substantial increase in both small vessel (microvascular) and large vessel (macrovascular) diseases. The macrovascular effects of diabetes, causing serious morbidity and mortality, are found in the coronary, cerebral (extra- and intracranial), and peripheral vascular circulation. The focus of this chapter's discussion will be on the lower extremity peripheral vascular complications of diabetes.
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