Percentage of body fat cutoffs by sex, age, and race-ethnicity in the US adult population from NHANES 1999-2004

Moonseong Heo, Myles S. Faith, Angelo Pietrobelli, Steven B. Heymsfield

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

79 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: To date, there is no consensus regarding adult cutoffs of percentage of body fat or estimated cutoffs on the basis of nationally representative samples with rigorous body-composition measurements. Objective: We developed cutoffs of percentage of body fat on the basis of the relation between dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-measured fat mass and BMI (in kg/m 2) stratified by sex, age, and race-ethnicity by using 1999-2004 NHANES data. Design: A simple regression (percentage of body fat = β0 + β1 x1 ÷ BMI) was fit for each combination of sex (men and women), 3 age groups (18-29, 30-49, and 50-84 y of age), and 3 race-ethnicity groups (non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Mexican Americans). Model fitting included a consideration of complex survey design and multiple imputations. Cutoffs of percentage of body fat were computed that corresponded to BMI cutoffs of 18.5, 25, 30, 35, and 40 on the basis of estimated prediction equations. Results: R2 ranged from 0.54 to 0.72 for men (n = 6544) and 0.58 to 0.79 for women (n = 6362). In men, the percentage of body fat that corresponded to a BMI of 18.5, 25, 30, 35, and 40 across age and racial-ethnic groups ranged from 12.2% to 19.0%, 22.6% to 28.0%, 27.5% to 32.3%, 31.0% to 35.3%, and 33.6% to 37.6%, respectively; the corresponding ranges in women were from 24.6% to 32.3%, 35.0% to 40.2%, 39.9% to 44.1%, 43.4% to 47.1%, and 46.1% to 49.4%, respectively. The oldest age group had the highest cutoffs of percentage of body fat. Non-Hispanic blacks had the lowest cutoffs of percentage of body fat. Cutoffs of percentage of body fat were higher in women than in men. Conclusions: Cutoffs of percentage of body fat that correspond to the current US BMI cutoffs are a function of sex, age, and race-ethnicity. These factors should be taken into account when considering the appropriateness of levels of percentage of body fat.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)594-602
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume95
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2012

Fingerprint

Nutrition Surveys
Adipose Tissue
Population
Age Groups
Body Composition
Ethnic Groups
Fats
X-Rays

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Percentage of body fat cutoffs by sex, age, and race-ethnicity in the US adult population from NHANES 1999-2004. / Heo, Moonseong; Faith, Myles S.; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Heymsfield, Steven B.

In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 95, No. 3, 01.03.2012, p. 594-602.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Heo, Moonseong ; Faith, Myles S. ; Pietrobelli, Angelo ; Heymsfield, Steven B. / Percentage of body fat cutoffs by sex, age, and race-ethnicity in the US adult population from NHANES 1999-2004. In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2012 ; Vol. 95, No. 3. pp. 594-602.
@article{c82cf0f2345045f988979d9b794b6943,
title = "Percentage of body fat cutoffs by sex, age, and race-ethnicity in the US adult population from NHANES 1999-2004",
abstract = "Background: To date, there is no consensus regarding adult cutoffs of percentage of body fat or estimated cutoffs on the basis of nationally representative samples with rigorous body-composition measurements. Objective: We developed cutoffs of percentage of body fat on the basis of the relation between dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-measured fat mass and BMI (in kg/m 2) stratified by sex, age, and race-ethnicity by using 1999-2004 NHANES data. Design: A simple regression (percentage of body fat = β0 + β1 x1 ÷ BMI) was fit for each combination of sex (men and women), 3 age groups (18-29, 30-49, and 50-84 y of age), and 3 race-ethnicity groups (non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Mexican Americans). Model fitting included a consideration of complex survey design and multiple imputations. Cutoffs of percentage of body fat were computed that corresponded to BMI cutoffs of 18.5, 25, 30, 35, and 40 on the basis of estimated prediction equations. Results: R2 ranged from 0.54 to 0.72 for men (n = 6544) and 0.58 to 0.79 for women (n = 6362). In men, the percentage of body fat that corresponded to a BMI of 18.5, 25, 30, 35, and 40 across age and racial-ethnic groups ranged from 12.2{\%} to 19.0{\%}, 22.6{\%} to 28.0{\%}, 27.5{\%} to 32.3{\%}, 31.0{\%} to 35.3{\%}, and 33.6{\%} to 37.6{\%}, respectively; the corresponding ranges in women were from 24.6{\%} to 32.3{\%}, 35.0{\%} to 40.2{\%}, 39.9{\%} to 44.1{\%}, 43.4{\%} to 47.1{\%}, and 46.1{\%} to 49.4{\%}, respectively. The oldest age group had the highest cutoffs of percentage of body fat. Non-Hispanic blacks had the lowest cutoffs of percentage of body fat. Cutoffs of percentage of body fat were higher in women than in men. Conclusions: Cutoffs of percentage of body fat that correspond to the current US BMI cutoffs are a function of sex, age, and race-ethnicity. These factors should be taken into account when considering the appropriateness of levels of percentage of body fat.",
author = "Moonseong Heo and Faith, {Myles S.} and Angelo Pietrobelli and Heymsfield, {Steven B.}",
year = "2012",
month = "3",
day = "1",
doi = "10.3945/ajcn.111.025171",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "95",
pages = "594--602",
journal = "American Journal of Clinical Nutrition",
issn = "0002-9165",
publisher = "American Society for Nutrition",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Percentage of body fat cutoffs by sex, age, and race-ethnicity in the US adult population from NHANES 1999-2004

AU - Heo, Moonseong

AU - Faith, Myles S.

AU - Pietrobelli, Angelo

AU - Heymsfield, Steven B.

PY - 2012/3/1

Y1 - 2012/3/1

N2 - Background: To date, there is no consensus regarding adult cutoffs of percentage of body fat or estimated cutoffs on the basis of nationally representative samples with rigorous body-composition measurements. Objective: We developed cutoffs of percentage of body fat on the basis of the relation between dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-measured fat mass and BMI (in kg/m 2) stratified by sex, age, and race-ethnicity by using 1999-2004 NHANES data. Design: A simple regression (percentage of body fat = β0 + β1 x1 ÷ BMI) was fit for each combination of sex (men and women), 3 age groups (18-29, 30-49, and 50-84 y of age), and 3 race-ethnicity groups (non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Mexican Americans). Model fitting included a consideration of complex survey design and multiple imputations. Cutoffs of percentage of body fat were computed that corresponded to BMI cutoffs of 18.5, 25, 30, 35, and 40 on the basis of estimated prediction equations. Results: R2 ranged from 0.54 to 0.72 for men (n = 6544) and 0.58 to 0.79 for women (n = 6362). In men, the percentage of body fat that corresponded to a BMI of 18.5, 25, 30, 35, and 40 across age and racial-ethnic groups ranged from 12.2% to 19.0%, 22.6% to 28.0%, 27.5% to 32.3%, 31.0% to 35.3%, and 33.6% to 37.6%, respectively; the corresponding ranges in women were from 24.6% to 32.3%, 35.0% to 40.2%, 39.9% to 44.1%, 43.4% to 47.1%, and 46.1% to 49.4%, respectively. The oldest age group had the highest cutoffs of percentage of body fat. Non-Hispanic blacks had the lowest cutoffs of percentage of body fat. Cutoffs of percentage of body fat were higher in women than in men. Conclusions: Cutoffs of percentage of body fat that correspond to the current US BMI cutoffs are a function of sex, age, and race-ethnicity. These factors should be taken into account when considering the appropriateness of levels of percentage of body fat.

AB - Background: To date, there is no consensus regarding adult cutoffs of percentage of body fat or estimated cutoffs on the basis of nationally representative samples with rigorous body-composition measurements. Objective: We developed cutoffs of percentage of body fat on the basis of the relation between dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-measured fat mass and BMI (in kg/m 2) stratified by sex, age, and race-ethnicity by using 1999-2004 NHANES data. Design: A simple regression (percentage of body fat = β0 + β1 x1 ÷ BMI) was fit for each combination of sex (men and women), 3 age groups (18-29, 30-49, and 50-84 y of age), and 3 race-ethnicity groups (non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Mexican Americans). Model fitting included a consideration of complex survey design and multiple imputations. Cutoffs of percentage of body fat were computed that corresponded to BMI cutoffs of 18.5, 25, 30, 35, and 40 on the basis of estimated prediction equations. Results: R2 ranged from 0.54 to 0.72 for men (n = 6544) and 0.58 to 0.79 for women (n = 6362). In men, the percentage of body fat that corresponded to a BMI of 18.5, 25, 30, 35, and 40 across age and racial-ethnic groups ranged from 12.2% to 19.0%, 22.6% to 28.0%, 27.5% to 32.3%, 31.0% to 35.3%, and 33.6% to 37.6%, respectively; the corresponding ranges in women were from 24.6% to 32.3%, 35.0% to 40.2%, 39.9% to 44.1%, 43.4% to 47.1%, and 46.1% to 49.4%, respectively. The oldest age group had the highest cutoffs of percentage of body fat. Non-Hispanic blacks had the lowest cutoffs of percentage of body fat. Cutoffs of percentage of body fat were higher in women than in men. Conclusions: Cutoffs of percentage of body fat that correspond to the current US BMI cutoffs are a function of sex, age, and race-ethnicity. These factors should be taken into account when considering the appropriateness of levels of percentage of body fat.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84857818552&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84857818552&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3945/ajcn.111.025171

DO - 10.3945/ajcn.111.025171

M3 - Article

VL - 95

SP - 594

EP - 602

JO - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

JF - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

SN - 0002-9165

IS - 3

ER -