Peptide nucleic acids rather than RNA may have been the first genetic molecule

Kevin E. Nelson, Matthew Levy, Stanley L. Miller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

169 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Numerous problems exist with the current thinking of RNA as the first genetic material. No plausible prebiotic processes have yet been demonstrated to produce the nucleosides or nucleotides or for efficient two-way nonenzymatic replication. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is a promising precursor to RNA, consisting of N-(2-aminoethyl)glycine (AEG) and the adenine, uracil, guanine, and cytosine-N-acetic acids. However, PNA has not yet been demonstrated to be prebiotic. We show here that AEG is produced directly in electric discharge reactions from CH4, N2, NH3, and H2O. Electric discharges also produce ethylenediamine, as do NH4CN polymerizations. AEG is produced from the robust Strecker synthesis with ethylenediamine. The NH4CN polymerization in the presence of glycine leads to the adenine and guanine- N9-acetic acids, and the cytosine and uracil-N1-acetic acids are produced in high yield from the reaction of cyanoacetaldehyde with hydantoic acid, rather than urea. Preliminary experiments suggest that AEG may polymerize rapidly at 100°C to give the polypeptide backbone of PNA. The ease of synthesis of the components of PNA and possibility of polymerization of AEG reinforce the possibility that PNA may have been the first genetic material.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3868-3871
Number of pages4
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume97
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 11 2000
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Peptide Nucleic Acids
ethylenediamine
RNA
Polymerization
Prebiotics
Acetates
Uracil
Cytosine
Guanine
Adenine
RNA Precursors
Nucleosides
Glycine
Genes
Urea
Nucleotides
N-(2-aminoethyl)glycine
Peptides

Keywords

  • Chemical evolution
  • First genetic material
  • Pre-RNA world
  • Prebiotic synthesis
  • RNA world

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • General

Cite this

Peptide nucleic acids rather than RNA may have been the first genetic molecule. / Nelson, Kevin E.; Levy, Matthew; Miller, Stanley L.

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 97, No. 8, 11.04.2000, p. 3868-3871.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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