Pain and medication adherence in adult cigarette smokers living with HIV: a cross-sectional observational study

Melody Willoughby, Andrea H. Weinberger, Jonathan Shuter, Elizabeth K. Seng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The present study examines relationships between pain, mental health symptoms, and medication adherence in adult smokers living with HIV. Sixty-eight adult HIV-positive smokers taking antiretroviral medication completed a survey measuring medication adherence, mental health symptoms, and pain. The presence of pain, OR = 3.81, 95% CI (1.19, 12.14), higher pain severity, OR = 1.22, 95% CI (1.05, 1.41), and higher anxiety, OR = 1.09, 95% CI (1.03, 1.14) were associated with inferior medication adherence (MMAS-8 score <6). Anxiety mediated the relationships between presence of pain (ab =.56, BCa CI (0.05, 1.61)) and pain severity (ab =.09, BCa CI (0.01, 0.24)) and medication adherence. The results of this study suggest that pain and anxiety are factors that significantly contribute to medication nonadherence and thus are important areas of assessment by clinicians treating adult smokers living with HIV.

Keywords

  • anxiety
  • depression
  • HIV
  • Medication adherence
  • pain

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Health(social science)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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