Purpose: To develop an optimal nonviral aerosol formulation for locoregional treatment of early lung cancer. Experimental Design: The formulation was made of polylysine/protamine combination (AND) as the carrier and p53 gene (p53sm) as therapeutic agent. To estimate the aerosol deposition, the aerodynamic size of the AND-p53sm was measured with extrusion-precipitation method. To accurately determine the dose, the aerosol efficiency in mice was measured with a fluorescent dye. The transfection efficiency and DNA protection function of the aerosolized formulation in cultured cells and mouse lungs were detected with reporter gene assays and/or reverse transcription-PCR. The preclinical safety and efficacy of AND-p53sm were studied in healthy mice and mice bearing orthotopic human non - small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) xenograft. Results: After aerosolization, AND is 3- to 17-fold more effective than commonly used PEI or cationic lipid formulations in transfecting the NSCLC cells (relative light units, 1,494 versus 534 and 86; P < 0.003). Aerodynamic size of AND-p53sm ranged 0.2 to 3 μm is the optimal aerosol droplets for deposition in the entire human respiratory tract. Significant gene expression was detected in the lungs of mice given aerosolized AND-p53sm and AND-luciferase. Aerosolized AND-p53sm significantly prolonged the life of mice bearing orthotopic human NSCLC xenografts, and it was more effective than an optimal i.v. cisplatin chemotherapy (increased life span, 93% versus 25%; P = 0.014). Inhalation of AND produced low and reversible pulmonary toxicity and no systemic toxicity. Conclusions: This optimal formulation is suitable for delivering biological materials to human lung with aerosol administration. This therapeutic strategy is an option for patients with early lung cancer and bronchoalveolar carcinoma.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research