Objectives: Urothelial tumors that invade the lamina propria but not the muscularis propria are a particularly problematic clinical entity. The aim of the present study was to assess the pathologic features and clinical outcomes of patients with clinical T1 grade 3 urothelial cell bladder carcinoma (UCBC) treated with radical cystectomy. Methods: We reviewed the records of 958 consecutive patients who underwent radical cystectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy for bladder cancer at three U.S. academic centers. Of these patients, 167 (median age, 66.7 years) underwent radical cystectomy for clinical stage T1 grade 3 UCBC. Results: The median follow-up was 33.8 months (mean ± standard deviation: 45.9 ± 39.2 months, range, 0.4 to 177.1) for patients alive at last follow-up. Disease recurred in 48 of 167 of patients (29.4%) and 30 of 162 patients (18.5%) died from bladder cancer. A total of 29 of 166 patients (17.5%) had lymph nodal metastases. Of 167 patients, 84 (50%) were pathologically upstaged and 167 (27.5%) had extravesical disease. Patients with disease upstaging had poorer survival (P <0.001). A greater than 3-month delay between cystectomy and last transurethral resection showed a trend toward upstaging (P = 0.06). Presence of carcinoma in situ (CIS) was the only precystecomy factor that predicted disease recurrence (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.13, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14 to 3.98) and mortality (HR: 2.75, 95% CI: 1.17 to 6.46). Conclusions: A large proportion of patients undergoing cystectomy for clinical T1 grade 3 disease have adverse pathological features. The recurrence and survival outcomes in this group are suboptimal. Presence of CIS precystectomy predicts outcomes. Better markers are needed to identify patients at high risk for adverse outcomes.
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