Background: Infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome after palliation have the worst survival among heart transplant recipients. Heart transplantation is often reserved for use in patients with sub-optimal results after palliative surgery. This study characterized outcomes after listing in infants with a single ventricle who had undergone the Norwood procedure and identified predictors of the decision to list for heart transplantation. Methods: The public-use database from the multicenter, prospective randomized Single Ventricle Reconstruction trial was used to identify patients who were listed for heart transplantation. Outcomes on the waiting list and after transplantation were determined. Risk factors were compared between those who were listed and those who survived without listing. Results: Among 555 patients, 33 patients (5.9%) were listed and 18 underwent heart transplantation. Mortality was 39% while waiting for a heart and was 33% after heart transplantation. Overall, 1-year survival after listing (including death after transplantation) was 48%. Factors associated with listing were a lower right ventricular fractional area change at birth, non-hypoplastic left heart syndrome diagnosis, and a more complicated post-Norwood course, defined as a higher need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, longer intensive care unit stay, more complications, and a higher number of discharge medications. Conclusions: Worse right ventricular function, non-hypoplastic left heart syndrome diagnosis, and complex intensive care unit stay were significant risk factors for listing for heart transplantation after the Norwood procedure. Heart transplantation as a rescue procedure after the Norwood procedure in the first year of life carries a significant risk of mortality.
- Congenital heart disease
- Heart transplantation
- Norwood procedure
- Single ventricle
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine