It has been suggested that the counterregulatory hormone (CRH) response to acute hypoglycemia is triggered via glucose sensors situated in either the hypothalamus or the portohepatic area. If the latter were critical during hypoglycemia, one would anticipate that ingestion of glucose, by raising glucose levels in the portal circulation, should attenuate CRH responses previously described in animal studies. To evaluate the effect of raising portal, but not peripheral, glucose levels during insulin-induced hypoglycemia, we performed hypoglycemic clamp studies in five healthy adult males on two occasions. On one occasion, subjects received oral glucose (OG) (25 g) during hypoglycemia; and on one occasion, noncarbohydrate-containing drink of equal volume, while maintaining plasma glucose at 55 ± 2 mg/dL (3.08 mmol/L). As a result, there were no significant differences in systemic plasma glucose levels between the two hypoglycemic clamp studies, and basal CRH concentrations were also similar. As expected, there was a brisk rise in all CRH during the control (hypoglycemia+noncarbohydrate drink) study. In the experimental study, administration of OG (hypoglycemia+OG), to raise intraportal glucose levels during systemic hypoglycemia, did not attenuate CRH responses. Indeed, OG enhanced the rise in epinephrine, glucagon, and GH. Increases in cortisol and norepinephrine did not differ between the two studies. Therefore, our data suggest that increasing the level of glucose in the portal vein above that in the systemic circulation, during hypoglycemia, enhances (rather than suppresses) CRH responses. Thus, ingestion of glucose may reverse hypoglycemia directly by provision of substrate, as well as indirectly by stimulating counteregulatory mechanisms.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Biochemistry, medical