The switch from a quiescent tumor to an invasive tumor is accompanied by the acquisition of angiogenic properties. This phenotypic change likely requires a change in the balance of angiogenic stimulators and angiogenic inhibitors. The nature of the angiogenic switch is not known. Here, we show that introduction of activated H-ras into immortalized endothelial cells is capable of activating the angiogenic switch. Angiogenic switching is accompanied by up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) bioactivity and down-regulation of tissue inhibitor of MMP. Furthermore, we show that inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3- kinase leads to partial inhibition of tumor angiogenesis, thus demonstrating that activated H-ras activates tumor angiogenesis through two distinct pathways. Finally, we show evidence for two forms of tumor dormancy.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|State||Published - Feb 4 1997|
- tumor dormancy
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