On-admission anemia predicts mortality in COVID-19 patients: A single center, retrospective cohort study

Seung Mi Oh, John P. Skendelas, Eric Macdonald, Michael Bergamini, Swati Goel, Jaeun Choi, Kathryn R. Segal, Kumar Vivek, Singh Nair, Jonathan Leff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objectives: We investigated the impact of anemia based on admission hemoglobin (Hb) level as a prognostic risk factor for severe outcomes in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: A single-center, retrospective cohort study was conducted from a random sample of 733 adult patients (age ≥ 18 years) obtained from a total of 4356 laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases who presented to the Emergency Department of Montefiore Medical Center between March–June 2020. The primary outcome was a composite endpoint of in-hospital severe outcomes of COVID-19. A secondary outcome was in-hospital all-cause mortality. Results: Among the 733 patients included in our final analysis, 438 patients (59.8%) presented with anemia. 105 patients (14.3%) had mild, and 333 patients (45.5%) had moderate-severe anemia. Overall, 437 patients (59.6%) had a composite endpoint of severe outcomes. On-admission anemia was an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality, (Odds Ratio 1.52, 95% CI [1.01–2.30], p = 0.046) but not for composite severe outcomes. However, moderate-severe anemia (Hb < 11 g/dL) on admission was independently associated with both severe outcomes (OR1.53, 95% CI [1.05–2.23], p = 0.028) and mortality (OR 1.67, 95% CI [1.09–2.56], p = 0.019) during hospitalization. Conclusion: Anemia on admission was independently associated with increased odds of all-cause mortality in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Furthermore, moderate-severe anemia (Hb <11 g/dL) was an independent risk factor for severe COVID-19 outcomes. Moving forward, COVID-19 patient management and risk stratification may benefit from addressing anemia on admission.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)140-147
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Emergency Medicine
Volume48
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2021

Keywords

  • Anemia
  • COVID-19
  • Emergency department
  • Hypoxic respiratory failure
  • Mortality
  • Sepsis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine

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