Observation of TeV gamma rays from the Crab Nebula with Milagro using a new background rejection technique

R. Atkins, W. Benbow, D. Berley, E. Blaufuss, J. Bussons, D. G. Coyne, R. S. Delay, T. DeYoung, B. L. Dingus, D. E. Dorfan, R. W. Ellsworth, A. Falcone, L. Fleysher, Roman Fleysher, G. Gisler, M. M. Gonzalez, J. A. Goodman, T. J. Haines, E. Hays, C. M. Hoffman & 25 others L. A. Kelley, R. W. Laird, J. Mccullough, J. E. Mcenery, R. S. Miller, A. I. Mincer, M. F. Morales, P. Nemethy, D. Noyes, J. M. Ryan, F. W. Samuelson, M. Schneider, B. Shen, A. Shoup, G. Sinnis, A. J. Smith, G. W. Sullivan, O. T. Tumer, K. Wang, M. Wascko, D. A. Williams, S. Westerhoff, M. E. Wilson, X. Xu, G. B. Yodh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

167 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The recent advances in TeV gamma-ray astronomy are largely the result of the ability to differentiate between extensive air showers generated by gamma rays and hadronic cosmic rays. Air Cerenkov telescopes have developed and perfected the "imaging" technique over the past several decades. However, until now no background rejection method has been successfully used in an air shower array to detect a source of TeV gamma rays. We report on a method to differentiate hadronic air showers from electromagnetic air showers in the Milagro gamma-ray observatory, based on the ability to detect the energetic particles in an extensive air shower. The technique is used to detect TeV emission from the Crab Nebula. The flux from the Crab Nebula is estimated to be 2.68(±0.42stat ± 1.4sys) × 10 -7(E/1 TeV)-2.59 m-2 s-1 TeV -1, where the spectral index is assumed to be as given by the HEGRA collaboration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)803-811
Number of pages9
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume595
Issue number2 I
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2003
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Crab nebula
cosmic ray showers
rejection
crab
gamma rays
air
gamma ray astronomy
Gamma Ray Observatory
energetic particles
imaging techniques
astronomy
cosmic rays
cosmic ray
telescopes
electromagnetism
energetics
observatory

Keywords

  • Gamma rays: observations
  • Instrumentation: detectors
  • ISM: individual (Crab Nebula)
  • Stars: neutron
  • Supernova remnants

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Atkins, R., Benbow, W., Berley, D., Blaufuss, E., Bussons, J., Coyne, D. G., ... Yodh, G. B. (2003). Observation of TeV gamma rays from the Crab Nebula with Milagro using a new background rejection technique. Astrophysical Journal, 595(2 I), 803-811. https://doi.org/10.1086/377498

Observation of TeV gamma rays from the Crab Nebula with Milagro using a new background rejection technique. / Atkins, R.; Benbow, W.; Berley, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Bussons, J.; Coyne, D. G.; Delay, R. S.; DeYoung, T.; Dingus, B. L.; Dorfan, D. E.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Falcone, A.; Fleysher, L.; Fleysher, Roman; Gisler, G.; Gonzalez, M. M.; Goodman, J. A.; Haines, T. J.; Hays, E.; Hoffman, C. M.; Kelley, L. A.; Laird, R. W.; Mccullough, J.; Mcenery, J. E.; Miller, R. S.; Mincer, A. I.; Morales, M. F.; Nemethy, P.; Noyes, D.; Ryan, J. M.; Samuelson, F. W.; Schneider, M.; Shen, B.; Shoup, A.; Sinnis, G.; Smith, A. J.; Sullivan, G. W.; Tumer, O. T.; Wang, K.; Wascko, M.; Williams, D. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wilson, M. E.; Xu, X.; Yodh, G. B.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 595, No. 2 I, 01.10.2003, p. 803-811.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Atkins, R, Benbow, W, Berley, D, Blaufuss, E, Bussons, J, Coyne, DG, Delay, RS, DeYoung, T, Dingus, BL, Dorfan, DE, Ellsworth, RW, Falcone, A, Fleysher, L, Fleysher, R, Gisler, G, Gonzalez, MM, Goodman, JA, Haines, TJ, Hays, E, Hoffman, CM, Kelley, LA, Laird, RW, Mccullough, J, Mcenery, JE, Miller, RS, Mincer, AI, Morales, MF, Nemethy, P, Noyes, D, Ryan, JM, Samuelson, FW, Schneider, M, Shen, B, Shoup, A, Sinnis, G, Smith, AJ, Sullivan, GW, Tumer, OT, Wang, K, Wascko, M, Williams, DA, Westerhoff, S, Wilson, ME, Xu, X & Yodh, GB 2003, 'Observation of TeV gamma rays from the Crab Nebula with Milagro using a new background rejection technique', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 595, no. 2 I, pp. 803-811. https://doi.org/10.1086/377498
Atkins, R. ; Benbow, W. ; Berley, D. ; Blaufuss, E. ; Bussons, J. ; Coyne, D. G. ; Delay, R. S. ; DeYoung, T. ; Dingus, B. L. ; Dorfan, D. E. ; Ellsworth, R. W. ; Falcone, A. ; Fleysher, L. ; Fleysher, Roman ; Gisler, G. ; Gonzalez, M. M. ; Goodman, J. A. ; Haines, T. J. ; Hays, E. ; Hoffman, C. M. ; Kelley, L. A. ; Laird, R. W. ; Mccullough, J. ; Mcenery, J. E. ; Miller, R. S. ; Mincer, A. I. ; Morales, M. F. ; Nemethy, P. ; Noyes, D. ; Ryan, J. M. ; Samuelson, F. W. ; Schneider, M. ; Shen, B. ; Shoup, A. ; Sinnis, G. ; Smith, A. J. ; Sullivan, G. W. ; Tumer, O. T. ; Wang, K. ; Wascko, M. ; Williams, D. A. ; Westerhoff, S. ; Wilson, M. E. ; Xu, X. ; Yodh, G. B. / Observation of TeV gamma rays from the Crab Nebula with Milagro using a new background rejection technique. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2003 ; Vol. 595, No. 2 I. pp. 803-811.
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T1 - Observation of TeV gamma rays from the Crab Nebula with Milagro using a new background rejection technique

AU - Atkins, R.

AU - Benbow, W.

AU - Berley, D.

AU - Blaufuss, E.

AU - Bussons, J.

AU - Coyne, D. G.

AU - Delay, R. S.

AU - DeYoung, T.

AU - Dingus, B. L.

AU - Dorfan, D. E.

AU - Ellsworth, R. W.

AU - Falcone, A.

AU - Fleysher, L.

AU - Fleysher, Roman

AU - Gisler, G.

AU - Gonzalez, M. M.

AU - Goodman, J. A.

AU - Haines, T. J.

AU - Hays, E.

AU - Hoffman, C. M.

AU - Kelley, L. A.

AU - Laird, R. W.

AU - Mccullough, J.

AU - Mcenery, J. E.

AU - Miller, R. S.

AU - Mincer, A. I.

AU - Morales, M. F.

AU - Nemethy, P.

AU - Noyes, D.

AU - Ryan, J. M.

AU - Samuelson, F. W.

AU - Schneider, M.

AU - Shen, B.

AU - Shoup, A.

AU - Sinnis, G.

AU - Smith, A. J.

AU - Sullivan, G. W.

AU - Tumer, O. T.

AU - Wang, K.

AU - Wascko, M.

AU - Williams, D. A.

AU - Westerhoff, S.

AU - Wilson, M. E.

AU - Xu, X.

AU - Yodh, G. B.

PY - 2003/10/1

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N2 - The recent advances in TeV gamma-ray astronomy are largely the result of the ability to differentiate between extensive air showers generated by gamma rays and hadronic cosmic rays. Air Cerenkov telescopes have developed and perfected the "imaging" technique over the past several decades. However, until now no background rejection method has been successfully used in an air shower array to detect a source of TeV gamma rays. We report on a method to differentiate hadronic air showers from electromagnetic air showers in the Milagro gamma-ray observatory, based on the ability to detect the energetic particles in an extensive air shower. The technique is used to detect TeV emission from the Crab Nebula. The flux from the Crab Nebula is estimated to be 2.68(±0.42stat ± 1.4sys) × 10 -7(E/1 TeV)-2.59 m-2 s-1 TeV -1, where the spectral index is assumed to be as given by the HEGRA collaboration.

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KW - Gamma rays: observations

KW - Instrumentation: detectors

KW - ISM: individual (Crab Nebula)

KW - Stars: neutron

KW - Supernova remnants

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