Obesity is associated with increased risks of prostate cancer metastasis and death after initial cancer diagnosis in middle-aged men

Zhihong Gong, Ilir Agalliu, Daniel W. Lin, Janet L. Stanford, Alan R. Kristal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

107 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Current research is inconclusive regarding the effect of obesity on outcomes after a prostate cancer diagnosis. The objective of this study was to examine associations between obesity and the risks of developing metastasis or prostate cancer-specific mortality in a population-based cohort of men with prostate cancer. METHODS. Seven hundred fifty-two middle-aged men with prostate cancer who were enrolled in a case-control study and remain under long-term follow-up for disease progression and mortality formed the study cohort. Body mass index (BMI) in the year before diagnosis was obtained at the time of initial interview. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of prostate cancer metastasis and mortality associated with obesity, controlling for age, race, smoking status, Gleason score, stage at diagnosis, diagnostic prostate-specific antigen level, and primary treatment. RESULTS. Obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m 2) was associated with a significant increase in prostate cancer mortality (HR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.18-5.92). Among men who were diagnosed with local- or regional-stage disease, obesity also was associated with an increased risk of developing metastasis (HR, 3.61; 95% CI, 1.73-7.51). Associations generally were consistent across strata defined by Gleason score (2-6 or 7 [3 + 4] vs 7 [4 + 3] or 8-10), stage (local vs regional/distant for mortality), and primary treatment (androgen-deprivation therapy use: yes vs no). CONCLUSIONS. Obesity at the time of diagnosis was associated with increased risks of prostate cancer metastasis and death. The increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastasis associated with obesity largely was independent of key clinical prognostic factors at diagnosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1192-1202
Number of pages11
JournalCancer
Volume109
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 15 2007
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Prostatic Neoplasms
Obesity
Neoplasm Metastasis
Neoplasms
Mortality
Neoplasm Grading
Confidence Intervals
Body Mass Index
Prostate-Specific Antigen
Proportional Hazards Models
Androgens
Disease Progression
Case-Control Studies
Cohort Studies
Therapeutics
Smoking
Interviews
Research
Population

Keywords

  • Cancer outcomes
  • Obesity
  • Prostate cancer progression
  • Prostate cancer-specific mortality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology

Cite this

Obesity is associated with increased risks of prostate cancer metastasis and death after initial cancer diagnosis in middle-aged men. / Gong, Zhihong; Agalliu, Ilir; Lin, Daniel W.; Stanford, Janet L.; Kristal, Alan R.

In: Cancer, Vol. 109, No. 6, 15.03.2007, p. 1192-1202.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gong, Zhihong ; Agalliu, Ilir ; Lin, Daniel W. ; Stanford, Janet L. ; Kristal, Alan R. / Obesity is associated with increased risks of prostate cancer metastasis and death after initial cancer diagnosis in middle-aged men. In: Cancer. 2007 ; Vol. 109, No. 6. pp. 1192-1202.
@article{4ce2871b984645a79975facbed24ab8f,
title = "Obesity is associated with increased risks of prostate cancer metastasis and death after initial cancer diagnosis in middle-aged men",
abstract = "BACKGROUND. Current research is inconclusive regarding the effect of obesity on outcomes after a prostate cancer diagnosis. The objective of this study was to examine associations between obesity and the risks of developing metastasis or prostate cancer-specific mortality in a population-based cohort of men with prostate cancer. METHODS. Seven hundred fifty-two middle-aged men with prostate cancer who were enrolled in a case-control study and remain under long-term follow-up for disease progression and mortality formed the study cohort. Body mass index (BMI) in the year before diagnosis was obtained at the time of initial interview. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95{\%} confidence intervals (95{\%} CIs) of prostate cancer metastasis and mortality associated with obesity, controlling for age, race, smoking status, Gleason score, stage at diagnosis, diagnostic prostate-specific antigen level, and primary treatment. RESULTS. Obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m 2) was associated with a significant increase in prostate cancer mortality (HR, 2.64; 95{\%} CI, 1.18-5.92). Among men who were diagnosed with local- or regional-stage disease, obesity also was associated with an increased risk of developing metastasis (HR, 3.61; 95{\%} CI, 1.73-7.51). Associations generally were consistent across strata defined by Gleason score (2-6 or 7 [3 + 4] vs 7 [4 + 3] or 8-10), stage (local vs regional/distant for mortality), and primary treatment (androgen-deprivation therapy use: yes vs no). CONCLUSIONS. Obesity at the time of diagnosis was associated with increased risks of prostate cancer metastasis and death. The increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastasis associated with obesity largely was independent of key clinical prognostic factors at diagnosis.",
keywords = "Cancer outcomes, Obesity, Prostate cancer progression, Prostate cancer-specific mortality",
author = "Zhihong Gong and Ilir Agalliu and Lin, {Daniel W.} and Stanford, {Janet L.} and Kristal, {Alan R.}",
year = "2007",
month = "3",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1002/cncr.22534",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "109",
pages = "1192--1202",
journal = "Cancer",
issn = "0008-543X",
publisher = "John Wiley and Sons Inc.",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Obesity is associated with increased risks of prostate cancer metastasis and death after initial cancer diagnosis in middle-aged men

AU - Gong, Zhihong

AU - Agalliu, Ilir

AU - Lin, Daniel W.

AU - Stanford, Janet L.

AU - Kristal, Alan R.

PY - 2007/3/15

Y1 - 2007/3/15

N2 - BACKGROUND. Current research is inconclusive regarding the effect of obesity on outcomes after a prostate cancer diagnosis. The objective of this study was to examine associations between obesity and the risks of developing metastasis or prostate cancer-specific mortality in a population-based cohort of men with prostate cancer. METHODS. Seven hundred fifty-two middle-aged men with prostate cancer who were enrolled in a case-control study and remain under long-term follow-up for disease progression and mortality formed the study cohort. Body mass index (BMI) in the year before diagnosis was obtained at the time of initial interview. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of prostate cancer metastasis and mortality associated with obesity, controlling for age, race, smoking status, Gleason score, stage at diagnosis, diagnostic prostate-specific antigen level, and primary treatment. RESULTS. Obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m 2) was associated with a significant increase in prostate cancer mortality (HR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.18-5.92). Among men who were diagnosed with local- or regional-stage disease, obesity also was associated with an increased risk of developing metastasis (HR, 3.61; 95% CI, 1.73-7.51). Associations generally were consistent across strata defined by Gleason score (2-6 or 7 [3 + 4] vs 7 [4 + 3] or 8-10), stage (local vs regional/distant for mortality), and primary treatment (androgen-deprivation therapy use: yes vs no). CONCLUSIONS. Obesity at the time of diagnosis was associated with increased risks of prostate cancer metastasis and death. The increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastasis associated with obesity largely was independent of key clinical prognostic factors at diagnosis.

AB - BACKGROUND. Current research is inconclusive regarding the effect of obesity on outcomes after a prostate cancer diagnosis. The objective of this study was to examine associations between obesity and the risks of developing metastasis or prostate cancer-specific mortality in a population-based cohort of men with prostate cancer. METHODS. Seven hundred fifty-two middle-aged men with prostate cancer who were enrolled in a case-control study and remain under long-term follow-up for disease progression and mortality formed the study cohort. Body mass index (BMI) in the year before diagnosis was obtained at the time of initial interview. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of prostate cancer metastasis and mortality associated with obesity, controlling for age, race, smoking status, Gleason score, stage at diagnosis, diagnostic prostate-specific antigen level, and primary treatment. RESULTS. Obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m 2) was associated with a significant increase in prostate cancer mortality (HR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.18-5.92). Among men who were diagnosed with local- or regional-stage disease, obesity also was associated with an increased risk of developing metastasis (HR, 3.61; 95% CI, 1.73-7.51). Associations generally were consistent across strata defined by Gleason score (2-6 or 7 [3 + 4] vs 7 [4 + 3] or 8-10), stage (local vs regional/distant for mortality), and primary treatment (androgen-deprivation therapy use: yes vs no). CONCLUSIONS. Obesity at the time of diagnosis was associated with increased risks of prostate cancer metastasis and death. The increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastasis associated with obesity largely was independent of key clinical prognostic factors at diagnosis.

KW - Cancer outcomes

KW - Obesity

KW - Prostate cancer progression

KW - Prostate cancer-specific mortality

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33947202141&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33947202141&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/cncr.22534

DO - 10.1002/cncr.22534

M3 - Article

C2 - 17311344

AN - SCOPUS:33947202141

VL - 109

SP - 1192

EP - 1202

JO - Cancer

JF - Cancer

SN - 0008-543X

IS - 6

ER -