Novel mechanisms of central nervous system damage in HIV infection

Joy E. Hazleton, Joan W. Berman, Eliseo A. Eugenin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

34 Scopus citations

Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection of the central nervous system is an early event after primary infection, resulting in motor and cognitive defects in a significant number of individuals despite successful antiretroviral therapy. The pathology of the infected brain is characterized by enhanced leukocyte infiltration, microglial activation and nodules, aberrant expression of inflammatory factors, neuronal dysregulation and loss, and blood-brain barrier disruption. Months to years following the primary infection, these central nervous system insults result in a spectrum of motor and cognitive dysfunction, ranging from mild impairment to frank dementia. The mechanisms that mediate impairment are still not fully defined. In this review we discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms that facilitate impairment and new data that implicate intercellular communication systems, gap junctions and tunneling nanotubes, as mediators of human immunodeficiency virus-1 toxicity and infection within the central nervous system. These data suggest potential targets for novel therapeutics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)39-49
Number of pages11
JournalHIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care
Volume2
StatePublished - Jul 19 2010

Keywords

  • Aids
  • Chemokines
  • Dementia
  • Gap junctions
  • Inflammation
  • Nanotubes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Health Policy
  • Dermatology
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology

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