To assess a role for oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we analyzed the immunohistochemical localization of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (OHdG) as a nucleic acid oxidation product, acrolein-protein adduct and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE)-protein adduct as lipid peroxidation products, N(ε)-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) as a lipid peroxidation or protein glycoxidation product, pentosidine as a protein glycoxidation product, and imidazolone and pyrraline as nonoxidative protein glycation products in the spinal cord of three familial ALS patients with superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) A4V mutation, six sporadic ALS patients, and six age-matched control individuals. The spinal cord sections of the control cases did not show any distinct immunoreactivities for these examined products. In the familial ALS cases, intense immunoreactivities for pyrraline and CML were confined to the characteristic Lewy body-like hyaline inclusions, and imidazolone immunoreactivity was located in the cytoplasm of the residual motor neurons. No significant immunoreactivities for other examined products were detected in the familial ALS spinal cords. In the sporadic ALS cases, intense immunoreactivities for pentosidine, CML and HNE-protein adduct were seen in the cytoplasm of the degenerated motor neurons, and OHdG immunoreactivity was located in the cell nuclei of the residual neurons and glial cells. The present results indicate that oxidative reactions are involved in the disease processes of sporadic ALS, while there is no evidence for increased oxidative damage except for CML deposition in the familial ALS spinal cords. Furthermore, it is likely that the accumulation of pyrraline and imidazolone supports a nonoxidative mechanism in SOD1-related motor neuron degeneration.
- Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
- Superoxide dismutase
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Clinical Neurology
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience