The current limitations of nitric oxide (NO) delivery systems has stimulated an extraordinary interest in the development of platforms that generate and release NO in a controlled and sustained manner, with a heavy emphasis on the treatment of cardiovascular disease states. This chapter describes the positive achievements of NO-releasing nanoparticles (NO-np) prepared using a novel platform based on hydrogel/glass hybrid nanoparticles capable of storing significant amounts of NO generated through thermal reduction of nitrite. The simplicity of the control release rate of NO from NO-np is regulated by its hydration when exposed to moisture; therefore, it allows the nanoparticles to slowly release therapeutic levels of NO. In a dose-dependent manner, infusion of NO-np has significant direct cardiovascular effect on physiological conditions, in terms of decreasing blood pressure, increasing exhaled NO, inducing vasodilation and increasing microvascular perfusion, during several hours post-infusion. Furthermore, the NO released by the NO-np prevents the inflammatory response regenerated by immune response to macroscopic external agents in the circulation. In pathological conditions related to an increase in acellular Hb in circulation, NO-np are able to prevent negative cardiovascular reactions related to NO scavenging by the acellular Hb. Furthermore, the NO-np are capable of preventing the cardiovascular collapse related to decrease in NO generation after severe hemorrhage without fluid resuscitation. These implications suggest that NO release from NO-np is advantageous over other NO-releasing compounds, because it does not depend on chemical decomposition or enzymatic catalysis. On the basis of the observed physiological properties, NO-np has clear potential as a therapeutic agent and as a research tool to increase our understanding of NO signaling mechanisms within the cardiovascular system.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Nanomedicine and the Cardiovascular System|
|Number of pages||20|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2011|
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