Newborn Screening for Spinal Muscular Atrophy in New York State: Clinical Outcomes From the First 3 Years

Bo Hoon Lee, Stella Deng, Claudia A. Chiriboga, Denise M. Kay, Obehioya Irumudomon, Emma Laureta, Leslie Delfiner, Simona O. Treidler, Yaacov Anziska, Ai Sakonju, Chelsea Kois, Osman Farooq, Kristin Engelstad, Alexandra Laurenzano, Katherine Hogan, Michele Caggana, Carlos A. Saavedra-Matiz, Colleen F. Stevens, Emma Ciafaloni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background and ObjectivesSpinal muscular atrophy (SMA) was added to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel in July 2018 largely on the basis of the availability and efficacy of newly approved disease-modifying therapies. New York State (NYS) started universal newborn screening for SMA in October 2018. The authors report the findings from the first 3 years of screening.MethodsStatewide neonatal screening was conducted using DNA extracted from dried blood spots using a real-time quantitative PCR assay. Retrospective follow-up data were collected from 9 referral centers across the state on 34 infants.ResultsIn the first 3 years since statewide implementation, nearly 650,000 infants have been screened for SMA. Thirty-four babies screened positive and were referred to a neuromuscular specialty care center. The incidence remains lower than previously predicted. The majority (94%), including all infants with 2-3 copies of survival motor neuron (SMN) 2, have received treatment. Among treated infants, the overwhelming majority (94%; 30/32) have received gene replacement. All infants in this cohort with 3 copies of SMN2 are clinically asymptomatic posttreatment based on early clinical follow-up data. Infants with 2 copies of SMN2 are more variable in their outcomes. Electrodiagnostic outcomes data obtained from a subgroup of patients (n = 11) demonstrated either improvement or no change in compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude at last clinical follow-up compared with pretreatment baseline. Most infants were treated before 6 weeks of age (median = 34.5 days of life; range 11-180 days). Delays and barriers to treatment identified by treating clinicians followed 2 broad themes: medical and nonmedical. Medical delays most commonly reported were the presence of AAV9 antibodies and elevated troponin I levels. Nonmedical barriers included delays in obtaining insurance and insurance policies regarding specific treatment modalities.DiscussionThe findings from the NYS cohort of newborn screen-identified infants are consistent with other reports of improved outcomes from early diagnosis and treatment. Additional biomarkers of motor neuron health including EMG can potentially be helpful in detecting preclinical decline.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E1527-E1537
JournalNeurology
Volume99
Issue number14
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 4 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology

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