Technological advances continue to enhance endoscopic sinus surgical procedures. The development and utility of these techniques and devices continues to evolve and at this time the final chapter cannot yet be written. New technologies should enhance preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative surgical treatment and care. Our ability to treat inflammatory as well as neoplastic disease will benefit from the availability of such devices. • Intraoperative computed tomography as well as magnetic resonance imaging are presently available. There are several devices that have the capability of demonstrating surgical anatomic change, and such data can be transferred to update image guidance. This exciting development should enhance surgical procedures for both inflammatory and neoplastic disease. • Endoscopic sinus surgery simulation facilitates educational opportunities for resident training and education as well as increasing skill set development for practitioners. These computerized systems provide a novel interactive scenario during which a specific surgical procedure can be programmed for simulation prior to a definitive procedure. • The development of balloon sinus ostial dilation provides an alternative method for the treatment of localized anatomic and mucosal obstruction of sinus outflow tracts. Initial experience confirms the feasibility and safety of the technique, and early results suggest improved sinus function.
ASJC Scopus subject areas