Insulin administration is the primary therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Current available insulin therapies do not successfully enable children with T1DM to reach glycemic goals without side effects such as hypoglycemia and weight gain. Pramlintide is a synthetic analog of human amylin that acts in conjunction with insulin to delay gastric emptying and inhibit the release of glucagon and is indicated for use in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Recent studies in adult patients have examined the role of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and agents that bind to its receptor in type 1 diabetes. It is hypothesized that a major component of the glycemic effect is attributable to the known action of GLP-1 to delay gastric emptying and to inhibit glucagon secretion. Further studies with the use of amylin analogs and long-acting GLP-1 agonists as congeners with insulin in T1DM are indicated in children. In recent years, our better understanding of the pathophysiology of diabetes has led to the development of new therapies for diabetes. This article reviews the potential use of these newer pharmacologic agents as adjunctive therapy in T1DM in children and adolescents.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health