Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have revolutionized the assessment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) by permitting rapid detection and localization of acute intracranial injuries. In concussion, the most common presentation of sports-related head trauma, CT and MRI are unrevealing. This normal appearance of the brain on standard neuroimaging, however, belies the structural and functional pathology that underpins concussion-related symptoms and dysfunction. Advances in neuroimaging have expanded our ability to gain insight into this microstructural and functional brain pathology. This chapter will present both conventional and more advanced imaging approaches (e.g., diffusion tensor imaging, magnetization transfer imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, functional MRI, arterial spin labeling, magnetoencephalography) to the assessment of TBI in sports and discuss some of the current and potential future roles of brain imaging in the assessment of injured athletes.