Genetically encoded fluorescent indicators of neuronal activity are ultimately developed to dissect functions of neuronal ensembles during behavior in living animals. Recent development of near-infrared shifted calcium and voltage indicators moved us closer to this goal and enabled crosstalk-free combination with blue light-controlled optogenetic tools for all-optical control and readout. Here I discuss designs of recent near-infrared and far-red calcium and voltage indicators, compare their properties and performance, and overview their applications to spectral multiplexing and in vivo imaging. I also provide perspectives for further development.
- All-optical electrophysiology
- Calcium indicator
- Voltage indicator
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