Murine Model of Maternal Immunization Demonstrates Protective Role for Antibodies That Mediate Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity in Protecting Neonates from Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Type 2

Carol M. Kao, Jessica Goymer, Lip Nam Loh, Aakash Mahant, Clare Burn Aschner, Betsy C. Herold

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) disease results in unacceptable morbidity and mortality. The primary humoral immune response to natural infection is neutralizing antibodies (Abs). However, Abs that activate Fc gama receptors (FcγRs) and mediate antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) may play a dominant role in protection. In adult mice, a single-cycle HSV candidate vaccine deleted in glycoprotein-D (ΔgD-2) that induces ADCC provided complete protection against HSV disease and prevented the establishment of latency. Passive transfer studies showed that Abs were sufficient for protection. The current study tested the hypothesis that maternal immunization with ΔgD-2 would protect neonates. Methods: C57BL/6 female mice were vaccinated 3 weeks apart with ΔgD-2, and pups were challenged at different times postnatally with lethal doses of HSV-1 or HSV-2. Concentration and functionality of Abs and immune cells were assessed. Results: Maternal ΔgD-2 immunization provided significant protection and reduced viral dissemination after lethal challenge with HSV-1 or HSV-2. Protection correlated with Abs acquired transplacentally or from breastmilk that mediated ADCC. Protection was reduced when pups were challenged on Day 1 of life, and this was associated with decreased ability of newborn cells to mediate Ab-dependent cell killing. Conclusions: Antibodies mediating ADCC provide significant protection against neonatal HSV.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)729-738
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Volume221
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 18 2020

Keywords

  • antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity
  • HSV vaccines
  • neonatal herpes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Infectious Diseases

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