Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal plasma cell disorder frequently accompanied by hematopoietic impairment. We show that hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), in particular megakaryocyteerythrocyte progenitors, are diminished in the BM of MM patients. Genomic profiling of HSPC subsets revealed deregulations of signaling cascades, most notably TGF- signaling, and pathways involved in cytoskeletal organization, migration, adhesion, and cell-cycle regulation in the patients. Functionally, proliferation, colony formation, and long-term selfrenewal were impaired as a consequence of activated TGF- signaling. In accordance, TGF- levels in the BM extracellular fluid were elevated and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) had a reduced capacity to support long-term hematopoiesis of HSPCs that completely recovered on blockade of TGF- signaling. Furthermore, we found defective actin assembly and down-regulation of the adhesion receptor CD44 in MM HSPCs functionally reflected by impaired migration and adhesion. Still, transplantation into myelomafree NOG mice revealed even enhanced engraftment and normal differentiation capacities of MM HSPCs, which underlines that functional impairment of HSPCs depends on MM-related microenvironmental cues and is reversible. Taken together, these data implicate that hematopoietic suppression in MM emerges from the HSPCs as a result of MM-related microenvironmental alterations.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology