Mono-methylindoles (MMI) were described as agonists and/or antagonists of the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Here, we investigated the effects of MMI on AhR-CYP1A pathway in human hepatocytes and HepaRG cells derived from human progenitor hepatic cells. All MMI, except of 2-methylindole, strongly induced CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mRNAs in HepaRG cells. Induction of CYP1A genes was absent in AhR-knock-out HepaRG cells. Consistently, CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mRNAs and proteins were induced by all MMIs (except 2-methylindole), in human hepatocytes. The enzyme activity of CYP1A1 was inhibited by MMIs in human hepatocytes and LS180 colon cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 values from 1.2 μM to 23.8 μM and from 3.4 μM to 11.4 μM, respectively). Inhibition of CYP1A1 activity by MMI in human liver microsomes was much weaker as compared to that in intact cells. Incubation of parental MMI with human hepatocytes either diminished (4-methylindole, 6-methylindole) or enhanced (7-methylindole) their agonist effects on AhR in AZ-AHR reporter cells. In conclusion, overall effects of MMI on AhR-CYP1A pathway in human cells comprise the induction of CYP1A genes through AhR, the inhibition of CYP1A catalytic activity and possibly the metabolic transformation causing loss or gain of AhR agonist activity of parental compounds.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||11|
|State||Published - Oct 1 2019|
- Aryl hydrocarbon receptor
- Entero-hepatic axis
- Microbial catabolites
ASJC Scopus subject areas