Recent studies have demonstrated that brain may be considered as the target for aluminium (Al) toxicity, resulting in development of neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the particular mechanisms of Al neurotoxicity and their role in Al-associated neurological disorders are still debatable. The neurotoxic effect of Al exposure is mediated by its common toxic properties including prooxidant, proinflammatory, proapoptotic activity that are reported for a variety of cell lines and tissues, as well as more specific “neurotropic” effects namely interference with neurotransmitter metabolism and neuronal cytoskeleton. Although specific treatment of Al toxicity is not developed, Al chelation as well as compounds targeting molecular mechanisms of Al neurotoxicity (trace elements, polyphenols, phytoextracts, etc.) may be considered as therapeutic strategies to counteract Al neurotoxicity. However, further studies are required to unravel the particular role of Al in neurological diseases and specific treatment agents.