Purpose: Tissue level hypoxia has been noted in animal models of partial bladder outlet obstruction. The key mechanisms linking hypoxia and obstruction induced bladder dysfunction remain unknown. 2-Methoxyestradiol is a natural derivative of 17β-estradiol and is currently used as an oncologic agent for its ability to regulate the hypoxia pathway. We investigated the ability of 2-methoxyestradiol to modulate the hypoxia response in a mouse model of bladder obstruction. Materials and Methods: A group of 5 to 6-week-old female C57BL/6 mice underwent oophorectomy and partial bladder outlet obstruction. Obstructed animals received a subcutaneous pellet of cholesterol placebo (7) or 2-methoxyestradiol plus cholesterol (7). Age matched controls underwent oophorectomy only (8). After 4 weeks the bladders of mice with partial bladder outlet obstruction and of unobstructed animals were harvested. Bladder sections (5 μm) were immunostained for Hypoxyprobe™-1, glucose transporter 1 and hypoxia inducible factor-1α. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed for hypoxia inducible factor-1α and lysyl oxidase. Statistical analysis was performed using 1-way ANOVA and the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results: Immunostaining for glucose transporter 1 and Hypoxyprobe-1 revealed the presence of tissue hypoxia after partial bladder outlet obstruction. Immunostaining and real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated the up-regulation of hypoxia inducible factor-1α in mice after partial bladder outlet obstruction compared to controls (p = 0.0394). Although not statistically significant, a trend toward lower gene expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α was seen in mice receiving 2-methoxyestradiol compared to placebo (p = 0.0625). Compared to placebo, 2-methoxyestradiol treatment increased lysyl oxidase expression (p = 0.007). Conclusions: Murine partial bladder outlet obstruction resulted in hypoxia and up-regulation of the hypoxia inducible factor-1 pathway. Subcutaneous 2-methoxyestradiol administration attenuated this response and may be a viable tool to study the role of hypoxia after partial bladder outlet obstruction.
- hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit
- urinary bladder neck obstruction
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