Methylmercury-Induced Neurotoxicity: Focus on Pro-oxidative Events and Related Consequences

Marcelo Farina, Michael Aschner

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

23 Scopus citations

Abstract

Methylmercury (MeHg) is a highly neurotoxic environmental pollutant. Even though molecular mechanisms mediating MeHg toxicity are not completely understood, several lines of evidence indicate that the neurotoxic effects resultant from MeHg exposure represent a consequence of its pro-oxidative properties. In this regard, MeHg is a soft electrophile that preferentially interacts with (and oxidize) nucleophilic groups (mainly thiols and selenols) from biomolecules, including proteins and low-molecular-weight molecules. Such interaction contributes to the occurrence of oxidative stress and impaired function of several molecules [proteins (receptors, transporters, enzymes, structural proteins), lipids (i.e., membrane constituents and intracellular messengers), and nucleic acids (i.e., DNA)], culminating in neurotoxicity. In this chapter, an initial background on the general aspects regarding the neurotoxicology of MeHg, with a particular focus on its pro-oxidative properties and its interaction with nucleophilic thiol- and selenol-containing molecules, is provided. Even though experimental evidence indicates that symptoms (i.e., motor impairment) resultant from MeHg exposure are linked to its pro-oxidative properties, as well as to their molecular consequences (lipid peroxidation, disruption of glutamate and/or calcium homeostasis, etc.), data concerning the relationship between molecular parameters and behavioral impairment others that those related to the motor function (i.e., visual impairment, cognitive skills, etc.) are scarce. Thus, even though scientific research has provided a significant amount of knowledge concerning the mechanisms mediating MeHg-induced neurotoxicity in the last decades, the whole scenario is far from being completely understood, and further research in this area is well warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAdvances in Neurobiology
PublisherSpringer New York LLC
Pages267-286
Number of pages20
DOIs
StatePublished - 2017

Publication series

NameAdvances in Neurobiology
Volume18
ISSN (Print)2190-5215

Keywords

  • Methylmercury
  • Neurotoxicity
  • Oxidative stress
  • Pro-oxidative events

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Neurology
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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