The effects of acute and chronic stress on the production of systemic metabolites were investigated in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Metabolites excreted in urine were analyzed using GC/MS in conjunction with multivariate and univariate statistical techniques. SD rats were subjected to two kinds of acute stress and chronic unpredictable mild stress, respectively. Metabolic analysis demonstrated that urinary expression of a number of metabolites including glutamate, glutamine, homovanillate, proline, succinate, citrate, and tyrosine altered in the acute stress model in the same way as in the chronic model, while pimelate and hippurate changed in the opposite trend. The results suggested that the stress induced metabolic perturbations were reversible and nonspecific. Metabolic response to chronic combined stress revealed biochemical clues to depression-like symptoms validated by behavior and physiologic results. This study provides a noninvasive and dynamic analytical strategy for the characterization of endogenous metabolic perturbations induced by external stress.
- Acute stress
- Chronic stress
- Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry
- Multivariate analysis
ASJC Scopus subject areas