Metabolite proton T2 mapping in the healthy rhesus macaque brain at 3 T

Songtao Liu, Oded Gonen, Roman Fleysher, Lazar Fleysher, James S. Babb, Brian J. Soher, Chan Gyu Joo, Eva Maria Ratai, R. Gilberto González

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Scopus citations


The structure and metabolism of the rhesus macaque brain, an advanced model for neurologic diseases and their treatment response, is often studied noninvasively with MRI and 1H-MR spectroscopy. Due to the shorter transverse relaxation time (T2) at the higher magnetic fields these studies favor, the echo times used in 1H-MR spectroscopy subject the metabolites to unknown T2 weighting, decreasing the accuracy of quantification which is key for inter- and intra-animal comparisons. To establish the "baseline" (healthy animal) T2 values, we mapped them for the three main metabolites' T2s at 3 T in four healthy rhesus macaques and tested the hypotheses that their mean values are similar (i) among animals; and (ii) to analogs regions in the human brain. This was done with three-dimensional multivoxel 1H-MR spectroscopy at (0.6 x 0.6 x 0.5 cm)3 = 180 μL spatial resolution over a 4.2 x 3.0 x 2.0 = 25 cm3 (∼30%) of the macaque brain in a two-point protocol that optimizes T2 precision per unit time. The estimated T 2s in several gray and white matter regions are all within 10% of those reported in the human brain (mean ± standard error of the mean): N-acetylaspartate = 316 ± 7, creatine = 177 ± 3, and choline = 264 ± 9 ms, with no statistically significant gray versus white matter differences.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1292-1299
Number of pages8
JournalMagnetic Resonance in Medicine
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2009
Externally publishedYes



  • Animal models
  • Brain metabolites
  • High magnetic field
  • MR spectroscopic imaging
  • Rhesus macaque
  • Transverse relaxation time

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Cite this

Liu, S., Gonen, O., Fleysher, R., Fleysher, L., Babb, J. S., Soher, B. J., ... González, R. G. (2009). Metabolite proton T2 mapping in the healthy rhesus macaque brain at 3 T. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 62(5), 1292-1299.