Mechanisms of Enveloped virus entry into cells

Margaret Kielian, S. Jungerwirth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

82 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Enveloped animal viruses enter their host cells by a process of membrane fusion. This fusion can occur at the cell plasma membrane or within the endocytic vacuolar system, depending on the characteristics of the virus fusion protein. Examples of both pathways of viral entry are detailed in this review. Semliki Forest virus (SFV) is presented as a well-studied prototype of those viruses which use endocytic uptake in order to infect cells. Fusion of endocytosed SFV is specifically triggered by the acidic pH present within the endocytic pathway, which causes specific conformational changes in the SFV spike protein. While the overall features of endocytic uptake are similar for all viruses which use this pathway, the mechanism by which the viruses then cause fusion appears to differ significantly between them. The best understood fusion mechanism is that of influenza virus, for which sequences involved in pH-dependent fusion can be correlated with the crystallographic structure of the spike protein. In contrast to these pH-dependent virus systems, the entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) into cells occurs by a pH-independent fusion mechanism probably involving fusion at the plasma membrane. The data to date on HIV fusion, endocytosis and entry are summarized as an example of this pathway.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)17-31
Number of pages15
JournalMolecular Biology and Medicine
Volume7
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1990

Fingerprint

Virus Internalization
Semliki forest virus
Viruses
Cell Membrane
Endocytosis
Viral Fusion Proteins
HIV
Membrane Fusion
Orthomyxoviridae
Proteins

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics(clinical)
  • Molecular Biology

Cite this

Mechanisms of Enveloped virus entry into cells. / Kielian, Margaret; Jungerwirth, S.

In: Molecular Biology and Medicine, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1990, p. 17-31.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{51565b07487d4f73b42e8c3ba3c7ad03,
title = "Mechanisms of Enveloped virus entry into cells",
abstract = "Enveloped animal viruses enter their host cells by a process of membrane fusion. This fusion can occur at the cell plasma membrane or within the endocytic vacuolar system, depending on the characteristics of the virus fusion protein. Examples of both pathways of viral entry are detailed in this review. Semliki Forest virus (SFV) is presented as a well-studied prototype of those viruses which use endocytic uptake in order to infect cells. Fusion of endocytosed SFV is specifically triggered by the acidic pH present within the endocytic pathway, which causes specific conformational changes in the SFV spike protein. While the overall features of endocytic uptake are similar for all viruses which use this pathway, the mechanism by which the viruses then cause fusion appears to differ significantly between them. The best understood fusion mechanism is that of influenza virus, for which sequences involved in pH-dependent fusion can be correlated with the crystallographic structure of the spike protein. In contrast to these pH-dependent virus systems, the entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) into cells occurs by a pH-independent fusion mechanism probably involving fusion at the plasma membrane. The data to date on HIV fusion, endocytosis and entry are summarized as an example of this pathway.",
author = "Margaret Kielian and S. Jungerwirth",
year = "1990",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "7",
pages = "17--31",
journal = "Molecular Biology and Medicine",
issn = "0735-1313",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Mechanisms of Enveloped virus entry into cells

AU - Kielian, Margaret

AU - Jungerwirth, S.

PY - 1990

Y1 - 1990

N2 - Enveloped animal viruses enter their host cells by a process of membrane fusion. This fusion can occur at the cell plasma membrane or within the endocytic vacuolar system, depending on the characteristics of the virus fusion protein. Examples of both pathways of viral entry are detailed in this review. Semliki Forest virus (SFV) is presented as a well-studied prototype of those viruses which use endocytic uptake in order to infect cells. Fusion of endocytosed SFV is specifically triggered by the acidic pH present within the endocytic pathway, which causes specific conformational changes in the SFV spike protein. While the overall features of endocytic uptake are similar for all viruses which use this pathway, the mechanism by which the viruses then cause fusion appears to differ significantly between them. The best understood fusion mechanism is that of influenza virus, for which sequences involved in pH-dependent fusion can be correlated with the crystallographic structure of the spike protein. In contrast to these pH-dependent virus systems, the entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) into cells occurs by a pH-independent fusion mechanism probably involving fusion at the plasma membrane. The data to date on HIV fusion, endocytosis and entry are summarized as an example of this pathway.

AB - Enveloped animal viruses enter their host cells by a process of membrane fusion. This fusion can occur at the cell plasma membrane or within the endocytic vacuolar system, depending on the characteristics of the virus fusion protein. Examples of both pathways of viral entry are detailed in this review. Semliki Forest virus (SFV) is presented as a well-studied prototype of those viruses which use endocytic uptake in order to infect cells. Fusion of endocytosed SFV is specifically triggered by the acidic pH present within the endocytic pathway, which causes specific conformational changes in the SFV spike protein. While the overall features of endocytic uptake are similar for all viruses which use this pathway, the mechanism by which the viruses then cause fusion appears to differ significantly between them. The best understood fusion mechanism is that of influenza virus, for which sequences involved in pH-dependent fusion can be correlated with the crystallographic structure of the spike protein. In contrast to these pH-dependent virus systems, the entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) into cells occurs by a pH-independent fusion mechanism probably involving fusion at the plasma membrane. The data to date on HIV fusion, endocytosis and entry are summarized as an example of this pathway.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0025373110&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0025373110&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 2182968

AN - SCOPUS:0025373110

VL - 7

SP - 17

EP - 31

JO - Molecular Biology and Medicine

JF - Molecular Biology and Medicine

SN - 0735-1313

IS - 1

ER -