Studies were conducted to determine whether maternal substrate utilization during pregnancy affects fetal growth and predisposes offspring to metabolic disease. Female wild-type (WT) and glucose transporter 4 heterozygous mice (G4±, a model of altered peripheral substrate utilization) were fed high-fat diet (HFD, 35.5% fat) or control chow (C, 9.5% fat) for 2 wk before mating, throughout pregnancy and lactation (IU/L). WT HFD females exhibited increased serum nonesterified fatty acid and lactate levels and increased hepatic mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1-β and SREBP-1c, consistent with increased lipogenesis. G4± HFD females exhibited enhanced lipid clearance, and exposure to HFD did not increase hepatic gene expression. HFD independent of maternal genotype decreased fetal growth and birth weight. WT offspring were weaned onto a low-fat diet (5.6% fat). Male offspring of WT mothers exposed to HFD exhibited "catch-up" growth accompanied by increased adiposity, impaired glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, male offspring of G4± HFD mothers did not exhibit any characteristics of metabolic syndrome. These data suggest that differences in maternal substrate utilization influence offspring metabolic phenotype.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health