The main treatment modalities for localized prostate cancer are surgery and radiation. Surgery removes the whole prostate gland, whereas with radiation therapy the irradiated prostate remains within the patient's body. Biomarkers specific to the prostate gland should become undetectable after surgery, but this is not the case when radiation therapy is used, as residual prostate cells may still be metabolically active. Here, we review the role of tumor markers of toxicity and response to radiation therapy in patients with prostate cancer, including prostate specific antigen, human kallikrein 2, osteopontin, prostate cancer associated 3, citrulline, and others.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging