Marginal structural models for case-cohort study designs to estimate the association of antiretroviral therapy initiation with incident AIDS or death

Stephen R. Cole, Michael G. Hudgens, Phyllis C. Tien, Kathryn Anastos, Lawrence Kingsley, Joan S. Chmiel, Lisa P. Jacobson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Scopus citations

Abstract

To estimate the association of antiretroviral therapy initiation with incident acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or death while accounting for time-varying confounding in a cost-efficient manner, the authors combined a case-cohort study design with inverse probability-weighted estimation of a marginal structural Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 950 adults who were positive for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 were followed in 2 US cohort studies between 1995 and 2007. In the full cohort, 211 AIDS cases or deaths occurred during 4,456 person-years. In an illustrative 20% random subcohort of 190 participants, 41 AIDS cases or deaths occurred during 861 person-years. Accounting for measured confounders and determinants of dropout by inverse probability weighting, the full cohort hazard ratio was 0.41 (95% confidence interval: 0.26, 0.65) and the case-cohort hazard ratio was 0.47 (95% confidence interval: 0.26, 0.83). Standard multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios were closer to the null, regardless of study design. The precision lost with the case-cohort design was modest given the cost savings. Results from Monte Carlo simulations demonstrated that the proposed approach yields approximately unbiased estimates of the hazard ratio with appropriate confidence interval coverage. Marginal structural model analysis of case-cohort study designs provides a cost-efficient design coupled with an accurate analytic method for research settings in which there is time-varying confounding.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)381-390
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Epidemiology
Volume175
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2012

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Keywords

  • HIV
  • acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
  • case-cohort studies
  • cohort studies
  • confounding bias
  • pharmacoepidemiology
  • selection bias

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology

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