HIV viral entry occurs via viral interaction with host cell CD4 receptors and a second coreceptor, most commonly chemokine coreceptor (CCR)5. As a result, CCR5 antagonists have been developed to block HIV entry into CD4+ cells, thereby inhibiting viral replication. The first CCR5 inhibitor approved for use in the treatment of HIV was maraviroc. Maraviroc has been shown to be successful in reducing HIV replication in both antiretroviral treatment-experienced and treatment-naive populations. Since maraviroc is only efficacious against CCR5-tropic HIV virus, it is imperative to perform viral tropism testing prior to initiation of maraviroc. The currently available enhanced sensitivity Trofile™ assay (Monogram Biosciences, CA, USA) is the reference standard of tropism tests. Although it is highly sensitive, it remains a barrier to maraviroc use because it is expensive and has a long turnaround time. The development of simpler tropism assays may allow for more widespread use of maraviroc in the future. At present, maraviroc remains a highly useful drug in the management of HIV-infected persons infected with CCR5-tropic viruses.
- CCR5 receptor
ASJC Scopus subject areas